|Abstract: || 自古以來，義大利在人文歷史發展、國際政治與經濟上皆有舉足輕重之地位，除身為七大工業國組織之一，亦為北大西洋公約組織和歐洲聯盟之創始會員國。然而，義大利南北歷史、政治和經濟發展皆有顯著差異。其區域發展差異不僅超過一個半世紀，現今差異程度更勝當年的東、西德。何以義大利能在國際上占有一席之地，同時在國內則呈現高度分歧的情況？為何即使建國150年後，義大利仍無法消弭內部認同危機，進而成為真正統一而強大的先進國家？此議題深深引起筆者欲研究之動機。|
From then till now, whether in cultural and historical development, international politics or economies, Italy always plays an important role. Italy is not only one of the founding countries of G7, but also a founding member of NATO and EU, however, the historical, political and economic development of north and south Italy has significant differences. Its regional development differences exist more than one and a half century, and the difference is more serious than the East and West Germany by that time. How could Italy be so important to the global society, yet in the same time bearing such a big difference in the national level? Even after 150 years of its founding, why it still cannot repair their national identity crisis and become a truly unified, powerful and developed country? It inspired me to write this thesis.
In the beginning, we explore how the differences in historical, political and economic development between South and North Italy play the significant impact to the country. Then, we will analyze the policies proposed by the Italian government and European Union. Finally, we discuss the policies which are made for resolving the North-South divide in Italy. My essay will investigate the difference between north and south with the relevant policies from three levels. First, in the national level, we analyze how the Italian government dealt with the “Southern Question”, which was caused by the North-South differences. Second, in the supranational level, we discuss how the European Union cooperated with the Italian government through the Cohesion Policy in order to resolve the regional differences. Third, we use the example of the development in region Campania to analyze how the European Union implemented the policies to response the needs of the nation then we will discuss the results of the policies.