俄羅斯地處高緯度地區，氣候較為寒冷，以動物毛皮作為禦寒衣物已有數百年的歷史，同時因為國土遼闊，自然生態資源相當豐富，世界上許多的動物黑市交易都源於此，近年來環保意識興起，生物多樣性也逐漸被重視，各國政府及國際組織紛紛呼籲停止獵殺、停止使用動物製品，然而市場上對於動物商品的需求量仍舊不減，在此趨勢下，動物黑市交易相關法規在各國被確立，然而法規並沒有減緩黑市交易運行，反而使其更為發展蓬勃，生態保育面臨更嚴峻的挑戰。 俄羅斯動物黑市交易犯罪涉及範圍極廣，除了觸犯國內法，更因地理位置鄰近同是動物黑市大國-中國，犯罪集團活躍於兩國法令之間，非法走私進出口造成跨國際的犯罪問題，瀕危動物的生命消逝，也對生物多樣性造成不良影響，此議題對生命、社會、國家、環境等四層次的安全均構成威脅，殊值世人重視與因應。 Russia’s latitudes are high and the weather is rather cold. It’s been hundreds of years for people to wear fur clothes to keep out the cold. Due to the vast area of the country, the natural ecological resources are rich. It is the source of a lot of black market animal trading around the world. In the recent years, more attention has been paid to environmental protection issues and biodiversity. Governments of various countries and international organizations have all stood out to ask people to stop hunting and using animal products. However, the market demands for animal products stay the same. Under this trend, laws regarding black market animal trading have been enacted in many countries. Yet, these laws still can’t slow down black market trading. On the contrary, they make this business even more vigorous. Now ecological conservation is facing more severe challenges. In Russia, illegal black market animal trading is involved with a great deal of activities. It is forbidden by the domestic laws. And because Russia is near China, a country famous for its large black market trading in wildlife parts, crime syndicates are very active and sneak between the laws of the two countries. Illegal smuggling in and out of Russia has caused international problems of crime. Endangered animals are being threatened. It also has a bad influence on biodiversity. This issue needs to be addressed and taken care of as it is a threat to all four levels, namely life, society, country, and environment.