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    Title: 哈薩克斯坦政治轉型中之新宗族主義特色
    Other Titles: Neopatrimonialism in political transition of Kazakhstan
    Authors: 楊奇峰;Yang, Chi-Feng
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    崔琳
    Keywords: 新宗族主義;哈薩克斯坦;政治轉型;中亞政治;Neopatrimonialism;Kazakhstan;Political Transition;politics of Central Asia
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-08-03 14:35:48 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   自1991年蘇聯解體之後,哈薩克斯坦也成為了獨立共和國,並且針對舊蘇聯體制進行了制度轉型,如今哈薩克斯坦雖擁有民主形式的制度,卻成為了一個威權總統制國家──上、下議會皆被執政黨與親政權政黨所把持,使立法權形同總統個人統治的延伸。經過制度轉型重塑的哈薩克斯坦遺留著前蘇聯治理的模式與恩從網絡的非正式運作。本文的研究目的為:
    1.定義新宗族主義特色的政治制度及其政治結構如何運作。
    2.探討前蘇聯時期哈薩克斯坦的制度遺緒,以及蘇維埃政策在政治、文化與經濟上對哈薩克斯坦造成之影響。
    3.分析獨立後之哈薩克斯坦的政治制度,憲法的制定及總統制的確立與國內的正式制度如何運作。
    4.論述哈薩克斯坦如何藉由恩從關係的操作平衡權力結構內的菁英競爭,及其恩從結構中三個主要行為者之定位:總統家族、技術官僚及經濟寡頭。
      本文認為哈薩克斯坦在歷經政治轉型之後逐漸走向具新宗族主義特色的超級總統制國家,具備正式制度與非正式的恩從操作特色。然而,隨著面臨權力更迭的關鍵時刻,總統將決定哈薩克斯坦民主轉型的下一步將走向改革或繼承性質。
      Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan became an independent state. However, due to weak state capacity, the political transition of Kazakhstan is characterized by the passive institutional design. Kazakhstan has become an authoritarian regime. Actors of transition transform Soviet system partially. Even though Kazakhstan possesses formal institution, such as constitution, electoral system and political parties, the state is indeed in control by the president and its patron-client network. The purposes of the thesis are to defining the characteristics of neopatrimonial regime; to analyze how pre-Soviet and Soviet legacies of Kazakhstan affect its political transition; to analyze the presidential system, constitution of Kazakhstan, and to discuss three key actors of patronal system in Kazakhstan -- president, oligarchs, technocrats. Now Kazakhstan is facing its critical juncture, only the president has the power to determine the next step of political transition in Kazakhstan.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of European Studies] Thesis

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