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    題名: 21世紀以來美國政府的戰略調整對台灣的戰略意涵
    其他題名: The strategic implications toward Taiwan from U.S. government's strategic adjustments since the 21st century
    作者: 蔡秉松;Tsai, Ping-sung
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
    洪陸訓
    關鍵詞: Returning to Asia for the US;US National Security Strategy;US Strategic Adjustment;美國的戰略調整;美國重返亞洲;美國國家安全戰略
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-08-03 14:35:32 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文所指之美國國家戰略,係泛指美國整體之大戰略,或全球戰略,或國家安全戰略,亦涵蓋其外交戰略、國防戰略,或次層次之戰略。依本文研究目的,涉及美國於其國家戰略整體規劃中,自21世紀以來歷任政府對亞太地區,特別是針對中國及台灣,以及美中台關係發展的戰略構想和規劃。
    美國整體國家戰略的形成與發展,大致上都能基於其歷史文化傳承、民主價值理念、國家利益需求,以及國際客觀情勢變化,而適時地加以調整,維持了國家的生存發展與國際霸權地位。而其發展趨勢,不論是對美國本身、區域安全或是世界格局,都產生或多或少的連動影響。因此,其發展趨勢與動向,全世界都在密切關注,也是學界、智庫研究的主題。
    美國自冷戰以來,其國際戰略和外交政策之主要目標,乃在建構與維持其世界霸權地位,以保障其國家最佳利益;也即其戰略目標不變,但在假想敵改變,以及國際情勢改變情況下,其國家戰略與時俱進。面對「中國崛起」和「中國威脅」,美國所採取之戰略,大致上,擺盪於圍堵、交往、合作之間,亦即在現實主義與新自由主義的思維下,適時適切地因應調整。柯林頓政府採「圍堵」、「孤立」戰略,以積極交往為手段,但仍主張圍堵。小布希政府採「圍堵交往」,對中國「硬圍堵」,以防止其軍力快速擴張。迨至歐巴馬政府,為全力對抗恐怖主義與維護區域安全,及避免東亞發生事端,設法與中國保持良善關係,因而再調整為「既交往、合作、又圍堵」的有利戰略。
    冷戰後快速崛起之中國,挑戰美國霸權地位,取代了前蘇聯而成新的兩極對抗局勢。尤其2003年從「一帶一路」大戰略倡議後,其政、經、軍優勢更加明顯。美國重返亞洲之平衡戰略,是否能持續運作,除保持軍事優勢之圍堵外,是否仍進行交流與合作,對美中與亞太區域安全將產生何種影響,頗值關注。
    至於台灣,歷來居於地緣政治戰略關鍵地位,能否於美中兩強角逐下,發揮其戰略價值,以維國家生存與安全,端看政治決策者之智慧和抉擇;兩岸關係如何維持和平發展,國內如何消除歧異紛爭,凝聚共識,以改善兩岸關係等,都是本文關注及後續探討之重要議題。
    In this article, the “National Strategy”of the United States refers to the overall strategy of the United States, or the “Global Strategy”, or “National Security Strategy”, that also covers its Diplomatic Strategy, National Defense Strategy, or sub-level Strategy. As to the goal of this study, it’s involved the strategic conception and planning of the United States in the Asia-Pacific region, especially pivoting for China and Taiwan, as well as the development of US-China relations since the 21st century.
    The formation and development of the overall national strategy of the United States
    can be in general based on its historical and cultural heritage, democratic values, national interests, as well as changes in the international objective situation. That gave its timely adjustment somehow maintaining the survival and development of the country and the international hegemony status. And its development trend, whether it is for the United States itself, regional security or the world pattern, resulted in more or less a linking impact. Therefore, its growing tendency and trend around the world are being closely watched, the academics and think tanks as well.
    Since the Cold War era, the main objectives of the international strategy and foreign policy for the United States has been building and maintaining its global hegemony in order to safeguard its best national interest. That is to say, when its strategic objectives remain unchanged, but once “the imaginary enemy” transforming, plus the international situation changing too, then its national strategy to be advancing with the times.
    In the face of “China’s rising” and “China’s threat”, the strategy adopted by the United States, roughly speaking, kept swinging among the ‘containment’, ‘intercourse’ and ‘cooperation’. That is, under the thinking of the Realism and Neoliberal, it came as a timely and proper adjustments. The Clinton Administration applied the “Encirclement” and “Isolated” strategies, while with the positive contacts as a means. Then the Bush Administration adopted the “containment with intercourse” and the “forced containment” to prevent the rapid expansion of Chinese forces. Up to the Obama Administration, for fighting against terrorism and efforts to maintain regional security, plus avoid incidents occurred in East Asia, it came as a favorable strategy---try to maintain a good relationship with China, and then revising to “both intercourse with cooperation, and containment as well”.
    After the Cold War, the “steep rising” of China has been taking challenge against US’s hegemony, in replace for the former Soviet Union and made a new type of bipolar confrontation. In particular, since the “One Belt, One Road” big strategic initiative in 2003, that spurred its political, economic, military superiority. It is noteworthy that the impact of the US returning to Asia’s balanced strategy, whether it’s going to remain operating, and whether it is still in exchange for intercourse and cooperation, how will it be an impact on US-China and Asia-Pacific regional security remains concern.
    As for Taiwan, it has always been standing as the key in the geopolitical strategy, whether the United States and China waging as two strong opponent. We’re inclined to play the strategic value for the survival and security of the country, hence ones the political decision-makers have to use the wisdom and right choices. Those about how the cross-strait relations to maintain a peaceful development and how to eliminate differences in the domestic dispute, gathering consensus as to improve cross-strait relations, are so concerned in this article.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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