位於東南亞的南海地處太平洋和印度洋之間，是扼守麻六甲海峽等重要國際航道要衝，無論中國大陸或是南海諸國，誰控制了它，誰就獲得了成為海上強國有利條件，同時在南海地區蘊藏大量石油和天然氣，中國大陸及南海諸國莫不為之覬覦，使得南海問題由純粹的政治議題轉化為複雜的政經交錯議題。美國重返亞洲，積極介入亞洲事務，相關國家權力佈局變化，使得南海問題成為重要的區衝突熱點，美國及日本等基於海洋礦藏資源、國際航行自由及國家利益等因素，使南海區域衝突日深。 中國大陸成為世界第二大經濟體後，國際地位和影響力已成亞太區域強權，在軍事建設上推行現代化，在南海進行各項島礁建設，對於南海主權爭議等核心利益，更具有主導權及影響力。南海聲索國頻繁的進行軍事演習與軍事力量較勁，使南海局勢更加嚴峻，假若無法和平對話來解決爭端，《南海各方行為宣言》形同失效，對於未來發生衝突升高的可能性將持續升高。 習近平為建設海洋強國，在南海主權議題維持強硬的態勢，利用島礁建設鋪陳未來南海防空識別區。對於中美在南海議題上的交鋒或軍事對峙行動，台灣在「親美」或「和陸」之間的抉擇必須謹慎與具有謀略，如何讓台灣獲得最大利益，實為當前台灣南海戰略的重要課題。 The South China Sea , part of the Indo- Pacific, is a critical commercial gateway for the world''s important merchant shipping lanes passing through Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan. Regardless of China or other South China Sea territorial claimants, whoever acquired the strategic control of the region, it gained the great maritime power. In addition, the rich oil and natural gas in the region was coveted by China and other claimants as well. Hence the South China Sea dispute had eventullally become complex politics and economics componded dispute, not only simple political dispute. Following with "the U.S. Return to Asia" strategy and the deployment changes of the claimants, South China Sea conflict was escalated to be the significant focus in the region. The tension between the U.S., Japan and other claimants was strained with the claims for the marine mineral resources, freedom of navigation and national interests. After becoming the world''s second largest economy, China has been considered as a great power in Asia-Pacific with international prestige and influence. China has taken more leadership and had much impact on the core interestes to the sovereignty disputes in the South China Sea with its modernized military development and island construction. The frequent military exercises and competition among the claimants in the region resulted in the excessive and ongoing tensions in the South China Sea. "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" woulbe be most likely existing in name only and the possible conflicts would be increasing if the disputes could not be settled through holding peace talks. In order to strengthen China''s marintime power, Xi Jinping remained tough and firm attitude towards the sovereignty disputes in the South China Sea and deployed future Air Defense Identification Zone in the region with China''s island contruction. The most important thing to the current Taiwan''s South China Sea strategy is to assure Taiwan of the greatest interests. Taiwan must make its choice cautiously and tactically of being Pro-American and being Pro-China against the South China Sea conflicts or military confrontation in between China and the U.S.