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    Title: 中國大陸電視產業發展趨向之研究
    Other Titles: Research on the development tendency of TV industry in China
    Authors: 郭峰睿;Guo, Feng-Ruei
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    郭建中;Guo, Jiann-Jong
    Keywords: 全球化;中國電視產業;娛樂;影視;文化軟實力;Globalization;Chinese mainland television industry;entertainment, film and television;Cultural Soft Power
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-08-03 14:34:10 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 大陸媒體市場可說是「最後難得僅存的潛力產業」,在特殊的政經環境下,大陸傳播產業具有政府喉舌的特殊定位,長久以來處在國營體制的保護,並禁止外資經營投資,但中國在2001年加入WTO、國營事業轉型成產業事業、及提升媒體國際競爭力的前提下,對外資經營媒體的法規漸漸朝向解管制化,進而影響外資佈局媒體產業的策略。
    電視為大眾傳播中重要的一環,早期除了書本報章雜誌等平面媒體外,我們父執輩那年代最重要的娛樂消遣莫過於電視了,它也是世界上普遍的大眾文化商品,黑白電視剛剛上市時,節目一開播,大街小巷萬人空巷,人們紛紛擠到有電視的人家爭相目睹,盛況空前。那時候電視是最佳的娛樂設備跟國家政府的廣播宣傳工具。隨著彩色電視機的發明、有線電視的發明、隨選視訊的發明,電視已經成為每個家庭必備的影音娛樂設備。不止娛樂功能,電視也是新聞與資訊的來源,還具有教育與教學的功能。而中國自從1978改革開放,到2001年加入世貿組織後,中國經濟成長迅速,無論在國家政策與經濟條件方面,都帶給電視產業新的機會與衝擊,其功能與型態也從早期純為官方發聲,演變至人們休閒與獲取資訊的來源,現在更進一步發展為可對外輸出的娛樂產業。
    中國大陸電視劇產業產量相當驚人。根據中國官方資料統計,在2008年中國共生產並獲准發行之國產(自製)電視劇有502部、1萬4,498集;2009年有402部、1萬2,910集;時至2014年,共有429部電視劇共計1萬5, 983集;2015年有395部電視劇共計1萬6, 560集完成生產並發行,可看出年產量都在500部左右,劇集數量則是逐年提升,並逐漸走向大製作、精緻化;而中國視頻影視版權支出也逐年增加,2014年電視劇新媒體管道市場規模達50億人民幣,仍呈現兩位數成長走勢,也就是說,平均每季約有1百部以上的電視劇完成。而電視劇帶來的廣告收入,占全國各級電視台廣告總收入的50%以上,足見中國大陸電視市場正日益蓬勃發展中。
    另外,在綜藝節目方面,2013年所播出節目有70多檔,2014年全年總量達100多檔,2015年全年已增至200檔,而2016年的綜藝節目約在400檔左右,較2015年翻倍成長,隨著節目數量走勢強勁,綜藝冠名費用也快速增長,2015年正式進入5億人民幣起跳的時代,綜藝節目已為為各大省級衛視的兵家必爭之地。
    從上述種種跡象可以發現,當今中國電視市場正以爆炸性的速度成長,但事實上傳統電視業正臨著前所未有的挑戰,電視曾經是視頻節目傳播唯一的媒介,得益於移動網際網路的發展,現在已實現「多屏播出」,也就是電視節目在電視機、手機、平板 電腦、台式機、遊戲機等終端螢幕上都可實現同步播出,隨著新的媒體形式、傳播形態層出不窮,使傳媒的大眾傳播形式受到空前的侵蝕。
    針此,本研究將從政府法規、媒體報導、專書及論文著作等作文獻分析,觀察大陸電視產業的未來發展,還有對於其國家文化軟實力的增強,展現出實質的影響;此外,在當前移動互聯發展迅速的時代,電視的播出方式不再局限於錄播、直播、點播、回放日益普遍;播出形態也不僅僅是完整的頻道,碎片化特徵日益顯著。如何應對新興的傳播時代來臨,對於電視台及節目製作業者都將是無可避免的課題。
    The mainland media market can be said to be "the last rare potential industry", in the special political and economic environment, the mainland communication industry has a special position of the government mouthpiece, has long been in the protection of the state system, and prohibit foreign investment, but China''s accession to the WTO in 2001, the transformation of state-owned enterprises into industrial undertakings, and to enhance the international competitiveness of the media under the premise of foreign-funded media regulations gradually toward the solution of control, and thus affect the layout of foreign media industry media strategy.
    TV is an important part of the mass communication, early in addition to books and newspapers and other print media, the father of the generation of the most important entertainment than television, it is also the world''s popular mass culture goods, black and white TV just listed , A program broadcast, streets alleyways, people have pushed into the TV people competing to witness, unprecedented. At that time television was the best entertainment device with the national government''s broadcast propaganda tool. With the invention of color television, the invention of cable television, the invention of video, television has become an essential audio and video entertainment equipment for each family. More than entertainment, television is also the source of news and information, but also has the function of education and teaching. The Chinese mainland since the 1978 reform and opening up to 2001, after joining the WTO, China''s rapid economic growth, both in national policy and economic conditions, have brought new opportunities and impact of the television industry, its function and type from the early Purely for the official voice, evolved to the source of leisure and access to information, and now further development for the external output of the entertainment industry.
    Mainland TV industry production is quite amazing. According to Chinese official statistics, there were 502 and 14,498 sets of homemade (homemade) TV series produced and approved by China in 2008, and there were 402 and 14,910 sets in 2009. In 2014, 429 TV series A total of 15,983 sets; 2015, 395 TV series total of 16,6, 560 sets to complete production and distribution, can be seen in the annual output of about 500, the number of drama is increased year by year, and gradually to large production In the 2014 video TV new media pipeline market size of 5 billion yuan, still showing double-digit growth trend, that is, an average of about one quarter each quarter of more than 10 TV series, the film and television industry, carry out. The TV drama to bring advertising revenue, accounting for all levels of television advertising at all levels of more than 50%, which shows the mainland TV market is growing booming.
    In addition, in the variety show, 2013 broadcast program has more than 70 files, 2014 total of more than 100 files, the year 2015 has increased to 200 files, and 2016 variety show about 400 files , More than 2015 doubled growth, with the strong trend of the number of programs, variety name cost is also rapid growth in 2015, officially entered the era of 500 million yuan take-off, variety show has been for the major provincial TV soldiers battleground The From the above signs can be found that today''s mainland TV market is growing at an explosive rate, but in fact the traditional television industry is facing an unprecedented challenge, television was the only medium of video broadcast, thanks to the development of mobile Internet , Now has a "multi-screen broadcast", that is, television programs in the TV, mobile phones, tablet PCs, desktops, game consoles and other terminal screens can be synchronized broadcast, with the new media form, spread the form of endless , So that the mass media dissemination of the form by the unprecedented erosion.
    This study will analyze the future development of the mainland TV industry from the aspects of government regulations, media reports, special books and essays, as well as the enhancement of the soft power of the national culture, and show the real impact. The current era of rapid development of mobile Internet, television broadcast mode is no longer limited to recording, live, on-demand, playback increasingly popular; broadcast form is not just a complete channel, fragmented features become increasingly significant. How to deal with the emerging era of communication, for television and program producers will be an inevitable issue.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of China Studies] Thesis

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