|摘要: || 「南海」(South Sea)近年來成為國際間關注的焦點，特別是該海域中的島礁爭議。南海爭議，除涉及領土主權的歸屬、海域之劃分，更牽涉到海洋資源分配等問題。二戰結束日本戰敗，根據《對日和平條約》(Treaty of Peace with Japan)日本「放棄」其所占領之南海島礁，南海頓時權力真空，進而引發了區域內聲索國的覬覦與爭奪，形成相互間的衝突。與此同時，區域外強權透過｢航行自由」與｢維護海上安全」為由，介入南海問題，導致南海緊張局勢升高。|
1974年中國大陸與越南發生西沙海戰、1988年兩國又為爭奪赤瓜礁而爆發戰爭，1995年中菲美濟礁事件、1999年中國大陸炸毀菲律賓黃岩島上軍事設施，2012年中菲黃岩島對峙事件後，各爭端國已從｢實質佔領」朝向島礁之強化與建設之態勢發展，以符合國際法島嶼制度之相關規範。近年來，中國大陸於南海大規模的填海造陸之強勢作為，更引發周邊國家之不滿。菲律賓於2013年1月22日向海牙國際仲裁法院(Permanent Court of Arbitration, PCA)提出《南海仲裁案》 (The Republic of the Philippines v. The People’ Republic of China)，主要聲索國菲律賓展開了法律行動，故南海爭議由原先的區域衝突，擴大為國際爭端。嗣於2016年7月13日PCA發布仲裁結果，《南海仲裁案》引發國際間一片譁然，菲律賓所提交之仲裁訴求，均予以正面回應。另一方面，PCA全盤否定中國大陸於南海主權「歷史性權利」及「九段線」之主張，造成中國大陸所主張之海域大為限縮。
The issue of islands and reefs located in the South Sea has become a focal point among many countries recently. The controversies include sovereign right over territory, territorial waters delimitation and marine resources allocation. According to the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Japan had waived the occupation of the islands and reefs in South Sea. The claimant countries inside of the area started coveting and contenting over the South Sea ever since. Various great power countries outside of the area also try to interfere the dispute by claiming “freedom of navigation” and “maritime safety.”
After the battle of the Paracel islands of 1974, the Johnson South Reef Skirmish of 1988, the Mischief Reef incidents of 1995, Philippine’s military equipment on Scarborough Shoal damaged by china in 1999 and the confrontation over Scarborough Shoal in 2012, the countries related to the South Sea controversy commenced to switch their strategies from “substantial occupancy” of the islands and reefs to strengthen and constructing of it, in order to comply with the regime of island in International Law. Recently, China’s aggressive actions of land reclamation has invited negative impact from adjoining countries. Philippine, the main claimant country, submitted an arbitration request to the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) on January 22, 2013 (The Republic of the Philippines v. The People’ Republic of China). Ever since, the regional conflict has become international dispute. The arbitration Award which made on July 13, 2016 gave positive considerations towards all of Philippine’s submissions. On the other hand, the arbitral Tribunal denied the “historical rights” and “nine-dash line” statements asserted by China. As the result, the scope of territorial waters claimed by China has been narrowed down.
This study bases on the “regime of islands” which set forth in International Law to discuss the rules and practices about the acquisition of territory. To analyze the definition of island and its legal validity by reviewing the history of South Sea disputes. To discuss the statement of sovereignty and the legal principle with respect to the ownership issue of the islands and reefs in South Sea that stated by the disputed countries. Furthermore, this study try to comprehend the standpoint and attitude of the disputed countries from the outcome of the arbitration Award, and to discuss the possible future conducts of China.
Finally, the study reviewed the South Sea policy of Taiwan in order to clarify the scope of Taiwan’s territorial waters the area, meantime, tried to cogitative that whether or not should Taiwan develop a sovereignty statement and a legal construction in South Sea disputes that distinguish from China. With respect to the international practices, Taiwan government should strengthen the “effective management” to Itu Aba Island and its nearby territorial waters, and to actively participant multilateral system for seeking more development cooperation opportunities.