|Abstract: ||近幾年來,中國大陸人口趨勢出現了重大的轉折性變化,人口發展的內在 動力和外部條件已經發生根本改變,主要表現在一是人口增長的勢頭明顯減 弱,人口增長的慣性動力正在消失,很快將走向零負增長;二是育齡婦女數量 逐步減少,特別是20-29歲生育旺盛期婦女數量下降較快,生育的基礎的和來源 在不斷削弱;三是人口老齡化問題日益突出,老齡人口和高齡人口成為增長最 迅速的群體,老齡化程度不斷加深,與此同時,勞動年齡人口開始減少,尤其 是年輕勞動力人口較快減少;四是出生人口性別比長期持續偏高,中國成為性 別失衡最嚴重、失衡時間最長的國家。|
由採取人口縮減取向的生育政策,轉變為採取人口走向穩定和長期均衡發展取 向的生育政策亦將過去的選擇性二孩政策推廣到普遍的、全國和全人群的政 策,也就意味著實施三十餘年的「一胎化」政策走入歷史。
In recent years, the demographic trends in mainland China have major changes. The internal and external conditions of population development have changed . First, the momentum of population growth has weakened obviously, and the inertia of population growth is disappearing. And the number of women of childbearing age is gradually reduced, especially in the 20-29 year period, the number of women in the period of strong fertility decreased rapidly, and the basis and source of childbearing were weakened. Thirdly, the problem of population aging was becoming more and more serious. And the elderly population to become the fastest growing group, the degree of aging continues to deepen, at the same time, the working age population began to decrease, especially the young laborforce population decreased rapidly; Fourth, the sex ratio of birth population long-term high, China became gender imbalance The most serious, the longest imbalance in the country.
Therefore, the three-member plenary session of the 18th CPC Central Committee for the first time in 2010 will be largely released from the child''s policy. The Second Child Policy be introduced. The fertility policy of adopting a population-oriented fertility policy will be transformed into a fertility policy with a stable and long- The policy of promoting the selective two-child policy to the universal, national and all-family policy means that the implementation of the "one-child" policy for more than 30 years has gone into history.