在1978年中國改革開放後，農村擁有大量的剩餘勞動力，稱為農民工，他們前往沿海城市工作，為中國創造經濟起飛。不過在2004年中國傳出勞動力短缺的消息，勞力短缺地區主要集中在中國東部沿海地區和珠三角地區出現民工荒。民工荒的出現在中國是一件影響深遠的事，對於中國是一個勞動人口充足的國家出現勞動力短缺的現象是不可思議，中國的人口紅利是否不再充足、中國的戶籍制度是否阻礙著農民工進城務工的意願和近年來中國中西部的大開發，城鄉差距的拉近導致農民公不再外出務工的因素，這個議題牽涉範圍很廣，需要好好檢視這個問題和解決這個問題。 中國政府對於民工荒議題，提出什麼政策解決民工荒，本論文是以一胎化政策、戶籍制度和城鄉差距，這三種層面解釋民工荒的發生和其影響及中國政府對其解決的辦法。 In 1978, a large number of migrant labor in rural China, went to work in the coastal cities, creating an economic boom after China economic reform. However, China has had a series of problems in the shortage of labor since 2004. The eastern costal areas of China and Pearl River Delt suffer from severe labor shortage. This is a signiticant problem for China. China is usually recognized as holding labor force. This may be a result of China’s demographic dividend being no longer sufficient, problem of China’s household registration system, or the discrepancy being in China’s central and western development. The gap between urban and rural has become lager than before. Which caused migrant workers not want to leave to find work in cities. This issue to need examined and solved. This thesis discusses the treatment chinese government the migrant labor shortage issue form three aspescts which include one child policy, household registration system, and the gap between urban and rural. These aspects explain why the shortage migrant labor happened and how China’s government has tried to deal with the problem.