本論文針對大量出現在文學作品裡面的文化詞彙如何忠實被翻譯為外文為前提，探討高行健先生諾貝爾文學獎得獎作品“靈山”中日翻譯版以及中英翻譯版之五大文化負載詞彙翻譯策略及翻譯作品的特性。 第一章序論包涵研究動機，研究問題，研究方法以及研究的意義。第二章先行研究討論Venuti（2007）主張的歸化以及異化理論，並探討Nida（1999）提出的對等理論，以及Baker（1999）主張的語彙簡略策略。第三章根據五大文化負載詞歸類分析“靈山”日文版以及英文版，包括生態用語，物質詞彙，社會獨特詞彙，宗教用語，以及語言文化負載詞語，分析出翻譯作品裡面21種翻譯策略，並交叉比對日文版跟英文版在翻譯策略上的異同。此外本論文也分析“靈山”原作之文學語彙與音韻語彙如何被維持並討論其譯文的效果。論文最後分析英日版本裡面文化詞彙的誤譯，並提出錯誤產生之原因，對文學翻譯與翻譯教育提出文化負載詞翻譯教學應重視之處。 本研究結果指出“靈山”英文版大量使用直譯策略，造成翻譯語彙內部構造不穩定現象。在意譯策略上日文版運用四種技巧，包括同義語，功能概念意訳，迂迴表現，與聲音還原，比英文版更多元處理文化負載詞彙。“霊山”的英文版本弱化與誤譯都比日文版本嚴重，而且分散在質感，詞彙選擇，以及語彙化轉移不正確等項目。“霊山”的音韻語彙日文比英文多。日文多使用副詞疊韻，英文則利用擬聲動詞。英文版的文學詞彙多為動詞與形容詞，日文版則以名詞為多。 本論文發現文化詞彙詞與文學翻譯的關係在於多重方式的翻譯策略使用，而不是集中在一兩種翻譯技巧。語彙內部構造的穩定，錯誤翻譯的減低，以及各種類型的意譯，都能增加文化負載詞的翻譯完成度以及翻譯品質。推敲文化負載詞的深層意義並採取各種混合式翻譯策略，可增加文學翻譯之忠實程度與完備性。 This thesis deals with the translation strategies of culturally-loaded words abundant in literature works. Soul Mountain, the Nobel Prize Winning Novel written by Gao Xing-Jian，is analyzed to discover how five main categories of culturally-loaded words are translated into Japanese and English. Chapter one points out the motivation, research methods, and research questions. Chapter two mentions domestication and foreignization theories proposed by Venuti(2007.) Equivalence theory proposed by Nida(1999) as well as vocabulary subtraction theory observed by Baker（1999）are investigated. Chapter three includes comparative analysis of 21 translation strategies discovered from the Japanese and English versions of Soul Mountain based on five types of categorizations related to culturally-loaded words. Words that carry the author’s unique literary vocabulary and words that convey sound effects are also investigated to see how the Japanese and English translation works have maintained literary words and sound effects on lexicon level. Moreover, error analysis of translation and weak translation are undertaken and the reasons that trigger imperfection of translation are revealed. This thesis has discovered that direct translation is largely used in the English version of Soul Mountain where lexicon structures show instability and disordered arrangements. In the Japanese version, four types of literary translation methods are used to guarantee a diversified translation of culturally-loaded words. Error analysis of strayed translation and weak translation have demonstrated that English translation of Soul Mountain relies less on multi-layered translation strategies and the errors appear evenly in several translation elements including meager quality of word choices, misunderstanding of the text, and erroneous translation of culturally-loaded words. In translating sound effects, adverbs are frequently used in Japanese while verbs are used more in English. In terms of unique literary words, the Japanese version focuses on nouns while the English version pays attention to verbs and adjectives. The findings of this investigation suggest that culturally-loaded words need to be translated by a diversity of strategies so as to improve the quality of translation and to decrease the uncertainty of word choices as well as instability of lexicon structures. Culturally-loaded words need to be translated after fully understanding the deeper meanings invisibly embedded in the depth of the words and culture.