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    题名: 日本國憲法思想與良心自由判例之研究
    其它题名: The research for jurisprudence on freedom of thought and conscience under Japanese constitution
    作者: 王淑雲;Wang, Shu-Yun
    贡献者: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士在職專班
    胡慶山;Hu, Cing-Shan
    关键词: 精神自由;思想與良心之自由;沉默的自由;君之代;日之丸;日本國憲法第十九條;Freedom of spirit;Freedom of thought and conscience;Free of silence;KIMIGAYO;HINOMARU;Japanese Constitution Article 19;精神的自由;思想.良心の自由;沈黙の自由;君が代;日の丸;日本国憲法第十九条
    日期: 2017
    上传时间: 2018-08-03 14:31:24 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 日本國憲法第十九條規定「思想與良心之自由,不受侵犯」。「思想與良心自由」亦稱為內心之自由,為人類精神活動之自由。且「思想與良心自由」之憲法保障意義有二,一為任何思想只要放在心中,即享有絕對之自由。其二,禁止打探他人思想。
    但近年的日本,諸多在畢業典禮等例行典禮上不願起立唱「君之代」而受到日本政府處罰之教師,以及命令學生與教職員必須起立唱國歌等事件發生。然而,畢業典禮與開學典禮上,日本政府可否強制學生齊唱「君之代」?公立學校音樂教師因拒絕在畢業典禮等例行典禮上彈奏與本身思想良心相違之「君之代」,因違反日本「地方公務員法」第三十條為由,遭受警告處分,是否侵害「思想與良心自由」而違憲?將本身認為真實事件公開於傳播媒體上,卻被日本國法院判處刊登與自身想法相反的道歉啟事,是否可以日本國憲法第十九條良心自由相違為由而拒絕執行?
    本研究透過日本的實際判例,綜合整理日本憲法業界針對「思想與良心自由」之看法,提出見解,期能為台灣憲法知識不足之部份給予參考與建議。
    In the Japanese Constitution Article 19:“Freedom of Thought and Conscience is not violated. The constitution protects two points under: First, it’s suffer absolutely freedom while the thought in human mind. Second, forbid enquire others ’thought.
    In the recently year, many teachers were punished because they did not be willing to sing the national song during the graduation ceremony. Moreover, we still find a lot of schools request students and their administrating stuff singing national song in particular time. We should do more consider that, is it suitable to ask student sing KIMIGAYO in their particular time such as graduation or school start day?
    A music teacher was warned by public servant low, that she rejected to play accompaniment for KIMIGAYO in the time of school graduating ceremony. Is it against the constitution which protects the freedom of thought & conscience.
    Dos it allows to reject the order of court to apologize basing on Japanese
    Constitution “freedom of thought and conscience” while publishing the fact? Which was based on his own idea, in the media?
    This study will be through the real event in Japan, and the view and judgement in Japanese law. Hope provide the reference and suggestion for the benefit in Taiwanese Constitution.
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