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    題名: 芝山巌事件が台湾に残した文化的遺産
    其他題名: 芝山巖事件給臺灣帶來文化的遺緒
    The cultural heritage in Taiwan by Zhishanyan incident
    作者: 高山智惠子;Takayama, Chieko
    貢獻者: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    石田光義
    關鍵詞: conflicting cultures;Social Constructionism;social constructivism;Six Teachers;Zhishanyan Incident;Zhishanyan Spirit;六氏先生;社会構築主義;社會建構主義;芝山巌事件;芝山巌精神;異文化
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-08-03 14:31:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要:   1895年(明治28年)4月,日本與中國清朝簽訂《馬關條約》,取得台灣此塊領土。對台灣的統治政策裡,日本政府將教育政策列入重要項目之一。而一手推動整個台灣教育政策的人,便是伊澤修二。他首先將學務部遷移到芝山巖,同時創辦芝山巖學堂,並邀請楫取道明、關口長太郎、井原順之助、中島長吉、桂金太郎、平井數馬等六位老師(又稱六氏先生)一同對台灣人教授日語。
      1896年(明治29年)1月1日,爆發「芝山巖事件」,時值伊澤修二出差到日本的期間。當時台北的治安非常不穩定,事件前後的該段時間,在台北的周圍皆紛紛發生武裝暴動與抗爭。為參加新年的拜年儀式,原本打算前往台北的六氏先生,受到暴動的影響,逼不得已只好返回芝山巖。但當時的芝山巖亦十分危險,因此六氏先生便隨即下山。但卻在下山後不久,就遭土匪襲擊,全員遇害。
    「芝山巖事件」對日本的台灣教育政策產生頗大的影響。伊澤修二把「芝山巖事件」變成教育政策推進的原動力,並將鞠躬盡瘁於教育活動的六氏先生的犧牲奉獻精神,尊奉為「芝山巖精神」,更有助於普及台灣日語教育的教師培育。除向教師以外,亦向其他的人民宣導「芝山巖精神」,因此在養成日本國民精神上亦有頗大的推力。之後,更在芝山巖山頂修建芝山巖神社,讓大家前往參拜祭祀,儼然形成一個文化。
      1945年(昭和20年)8月,日本接受波茨坦宣言,放棄台灣的領土主權。台灣在中國國民黨政權領導下,日本的教育政策被定位為奴化教育,對「芝山巖事件」的解釋亦完全改變,並排斥「芝山巖精神」。
      1987年(昭和62年),解嚴後,台灣開始進入民主社會時代,於是在芝山巖上立「六氏先生之墓」,並重修「學務官僚遇難之碑」。因此,「芝山嚴事件」再次浮現在社會台面上。
      台灣的歷史非常複雜,台灣人接受著多樣的觀念與異文化,彼此互相對立、衝突之下建構出台灣社會。透過「芝山巖事件」吾人可以知道台灣社會是在異文化相互衝突、鬥爭中建構而形成,而且上述的相互鬥爭的平衡時常在變動。這亦意謂「芝山巖事件」的解釋在各時期並非一定,因此要根據當時的解釋,始能解讀當時的社會情勢。
    In 1895, Japan signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and Taiwan became Japan''s territory. As for governing Taiwan, The Meiji government appointed Shuji ISAWA as the first chief of Education Bureau responsible for the educational policy in Taiwan. He is a man with an important role in
    the government''s policy on education. The education bureau was moved by him to Zhishanyan, and he founded "Shizangan Gakudo" in Zhishanyan. There, he began to teach Japanese together with "The Six Teachers".
    In 1896, while Shuji ISAWA was in Japan, "The Zhishanyan Incident" happened. At the time,
    the society of Taipei city was very unstable, and around the time of the incident, riots and acts
    of violence were happening around the city. "The Six Teachers" went to Taipei to attend New
    Year celebrations, but they could not go there because the city was too dangerous. Then, unfortunately they were attacked and killed by a militant group.
    "The Zhishanyan Incident" had a great effect on Taiwanese educational policies. After the incident, Isawa Shuji called the sacrifice of the six teachers the“The Zhishanyan Spirit.”It contributed to teacher training, and“The Zhishanyan Spirit”cultivated the Taiwanese people''s mind and became a part of the island’s culture.
    In 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration, and formally surrendered the island of Taiwan. After the change of government, The Kuomintang of China, viewed the Japanese educational policies as“enslavement education”. Therefore, they rejected "The Zhishanyan Incident" and“The Zhishanyan Spirit”.
    After martial law ended in 1987, the monument “Tomb of the Six Teachers”was built, as
    well as, "The Monument to the Six Teachers" made by Hirobumi ITO was rebuilt. Thus, once again "The Zhishanyan Incident" is attracting the attention of the public.
    The history of Taiwan is very complex, because the people of Taiwan had to accept different cultures. There are different opinions at all times in Taiwanese society, and the balance of
    power between people groups is often shifting. Therefore, the interpretation of "The Zhishanyan Incident" is also often changing. Through "The Zhishanyan Incident, "we can see the societal construction of Taiwan.
    顯示於類別:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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