我國於2009年3月31日通過公民與政治權利公約及經濟社會文化權利公約施行法，該法揭示各級政府機關應依兩公約規定之內容，檢討所主管之法令及行政措施，有不符兩公約規定者，應於本法施行後2年內，完成法令之制（訂）定、修正或廢止及行政措施之改進。隨著我國經濟發展，外來人口日增，大陸籍與外籍配偶在臺居留人數已超過50萬，惟渠等權益是否受到應有的保障，並符合上揭兩公約及施行法之相關規定，是本文關心之課題。 基於國家主權的概念，對外來人口的權益可有所限縮，另我國對於大陸配偶係用臺灣地區與大陸地區人民關係條例、外籍配偶係用入出國及移民法加以規範，不同法令規範自然不同；本文先蒐集相關文獻，瞭解國際法上關於人權概念之演進及內涵，進而探討現行大陸配偶與外籍配偶各類在臺居留權益規定，並嘗試將兩者相關權益予以比較呈現，進而發現兩者權益間諸多差異及不衡平之處，嗣就大陸配偶與外籍配偶常見訴願類型作進一步研析，以暸解現行相關法令差別規定是合理？有無侵害渠等基本人權之虞？另藉由深度訪談，瞭解各界對於該等差異之態度，以及有無探討修正之可能性。 最後針對法制、政策面向研提修正意見與具體建議，以作為我國日後研修法規及移民政策之參考，並期盼我國在對非本國籍配偶權益維護方面能與國際接軌，並符合兩公約所揭示之人權保障精神。 The Law on the Enforcement of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was approved on March 31, 2009, which will make the covenants legally binding in Taiwan. Under the Law, government agencies at all levels must conform to the human rights guarantees of the two covenants by examining and amending or abolishing laws and regulations which violate the covenants within 2 years. Increase of foreign population comes with development of our economics, citizens’ spouses currently holding resident permit in Taiwan are approximately over half million. This research focused on the issue about the society’s doubts about whether their resident rights are equally protected. The research tried to, based on the concepts of human rights revealed in international laws, compare contemporary resident rules and regulations for our citizens’ spouses holding Chinese passports to those for other foreign spouses in various dimension, in order to shed light on some hidden and potential differences or even dissymmetry. The research further studied common cases of appeals made by those two groups, in order to examine whether differences in current regulations and rules are reasonable, and to clarify whether there are potential infringement of human rights. And interview were also taken to further reflect the society’s attitudes toward this issue. In conclusion, the research provided proposals and advices for future amendment of related policies and regulations, in hope that the rights of the spouses holding resident permits can be strengthened and promoted in accordance with the two covenants.