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    Title: 從文化層面探討墨裔美人國族認同
    Other Titles: Exploring the national identity of Mexican - Americans from the cultural perspective
    Authors: 林建臺;Lin, Chien-Tai
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    陳小雀
    Keywords: American and Mexican relations;Mexican culture;Mexican-American;national;national identity;美墨關係;國族;認同;墨西哥文化;墨裔美人
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-08-03 14:30:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 美國自許是世界大熔爐,全世界移民嚮往之目的地之一,拉美族裔原本即佔一定組成比例,在使用西班牙語的各族裔中,墨西哥人佔最高比例,在這樣的情況下,墨西哥裔美國人,不管是美墨戰爭前的西南部各州居民,或是陸續前仆後繼的移民,他們實際在美國的生活狀況如何?他們來自種族歧視、經濟、教育、文化與社會融合等方面的壓力。同時他們的專屬生活習慣、宗教、語言以及文化認同等方面、因為特殊性,難免也帶給美國人相當壓力。
    本論文的研究方法主要採取歷史研究法與文獻分析法,藉以瞭解美墨兩國在歷史地理上有其無法分割的關係,經濟上也因北美自由貿易協定加深了墨西哥對美國的依賴,再者美國在藍領階級及重度勞動力人口也多仰賴墨西哥人的填補,這樣的環境下,墨西哥人在美國,透過家族、社區、民間組織,互相扶持,在語言、宗教、文化上卻仍保有其傳統,甚至仍以墨西哥人自居並引以為豪。相較於其他族裔移民者,在兩三代後即能相當程度融入當地生活,並認同自己為美國人而有所不同。墨西哥人難以被同化之原因是具有強大文化使然,對自我文化的認同原本天經地義,但若遭到異族侵略、殖民、高壓統治與種族歧視,則心裡上會激發更強烈的民族意識。
    如果想瞭解墨裔美人在美國的各領域的現象與發展,除了要認識其先天地理條件、種族血統等背景之外,最直接同時最能反映渠等生活適應與社會文化衝擊融合之現象者,莫過於文化領域中文學作品裡的描述,這些探討墨西哥民族從哪裡來,往哪裡去的文學作品不論是出自於諾貝爾文學獎得主-奧克塔維奧·帕斯(Octavio Paz,1914-1998)之手,亦或作者本身就是具有墨裔美人身分之當代大文豪-魯道福•安納亞(Rudolfo Anaya,1937-),或墨西哥大文豪-卡洛斯.富安蒂斯(Carlos Fuentes,1928-2012)筆者認為其說服力將不容置疑,他們在散文、詩詞、小說的字裡行間「反映社會、表現人生」在當今探討奇卡諾文化或墨西哥民族認同上有其代表性與重要意義。也就不難瞭解文化層面在不同族裔文化有其自然競爭法則,難以藉政治力撼動,並能藉由時間的推移,兼容並蓄繁衍提升為更有內涵之新國族文化。
    The United States has always expected itself to be one of the world''s melting pots, and it is also one of the destinations for immigrants throughout the world. Among the ethnic groups using Spanish, Mexicans account for the highest percentage. In this case, Mexican Americans, The inhabitants of the southwestern states before the Mexican war, or the immigrants who came to the United States successively, how did they live in the United States? They endured pressure from racial discrimination, economics, education, culture and social integration. At the same time they will inevitably bring considerable pressure to the Americans, in their unique habits, religion, language and cultural identity and so on.
    The research method of this thesis mainly adopts the historical research method and the literature analysis method, so as to understand the relationship between the United States and Mexico in history and geography has an inseparable relationship, the economy also because of the North American free trade agreement to deepen the Mexican dependence on the United States, and then The United States in the blue-collar and heavy labor force also rely on the Mexicans, this environment, the Mexicans in the United States, through the family, community, civil society organizations, mutual support, in language, religion, culture still retain its tradition, and even Still proud of the Mexicans themselves. Compared to other ethnic immigrants, after two or three generations can be a considerable degree of integration into the local life, and agree that they are different for the Americans. Mexican people are difficult to assimilate the reason is a strong cultural dictates, self-cultural identity of the original right and proper, but if the alien aggression, colonization, high pressure rule and racial discrimination, the heart will stimulate a stronger national consciousness.
    If you want to understand the Mexican-American in the United States in various fields of the phenomenon and development, in addition to to understand its innate geographical conditions, ethnic origin and other background, the most direct and most able to reflect the drainage and other social and cultural impact of the integration of the phenomenon , Than in the cultural field in the description of literary works. These literary works of the Mexican national culture, such as Octavio Paz (1914-1998), were written by the Nobel Prize winner, or the author himself as a Mexican-American Rudolfo Anaya (1937-), or Mexican writer - Carlos Fuentes (1928-2012). I think that the persuasiveness of their works will be unquestionable, and that their "reflection of society and manifestation of life" in the lines of prose, poetry and novels is representative and important in today''s exploration of the Chicano culture or the Mexican national identity. It is not difficult to understand the cultural level in different ethnic culture has its own laws of natural competition, it is difficult to influence by political power, but it can be compatible with the promotion of more content to the new national culture, by the time to move forward.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of the Americas] Thesis

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