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    题名: 國際爭端研究 : 以1986年尼加拉瓜訴美案為例
    其它题名: The study of international disputes : case concerning the military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua in 1986
    作者: 葉民崧;Yeh, Min-Sung
    贡献者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦
    关键词: 國際爭端;尼加拉瓜;美國;國際法院;International Disputes;Nicaragua;United States;International Court of Justice
    日期: 2017
    上传时间: 2018-08-03 14:30:23 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 國家間因各種利益產生衝突,自古而然,由於利益參雜政治、法律、經濟、文化、宗
    教、民族,甚至民族主義因素或國家權力的角逐,因此變得錯綜複雜。一般而言,由於利益衝突,倘衝突各方無任何一方讓步,甚難取得交集,達成協議並獲得解決。在國際政治特定敏感議題上,因各自的政策與國家利益定位上的不同,因此在法律上與事實上產生歧見或利益衝突,乃屬自然。

    時間回顧 80 年代,時值冷戰美蘇兩強對峙時期,中美洲局勢也隨著美蘇在國際間進行
    代理人戰爭而間接涉入。美國因憂心共產主義在中美洲滲透生根,危及美國之戰略利益,故而採取各種手段予以鉗制與遏阻,例如 1981 年美國總統雷根(Ronald Regan)上台後曾指示中情局秘密訓練尼國反桑定政權勢力(以下簡稱 Contras),並提供後勤補給,企圖推翻桑定政府,1984 年更發生外國船和尼加拉瓜船舶因誤觸美國在尼國港口部署的水雷,造成人員重大傷亡之國際事件。

    1984 年尼加拉瓜向國際法院提起訴訟,指控美國公然干涉尼國內政,1986 年國際法院裁定美國對干涉尼加拉瓜內政所造成的損害應負賠償責任。此一判決重要之處,在於小國以國際法對抗大國取得的勝利,當為一件國際大事,引發各國注目,惟美國並未恪遵國際法院判決,甚至拒絕承認國際法院的管轄權。雖然《聯合國憲章》第 33 條明文規定國家有和平解決爭端的義務,然而從本案例中可發現,國際法在國際實踐上仍受到相當之制約,亦即大國常不遵守國際法及國際法院之判決。

    本論文擬探討 1986 年尼加拉瓜控訴美案所涉之國際法概念,從 1979 年尼加拉瓜桑定
    革命後之美尼關係歷史背景發展、事件之來龍去脈,藉以釐清美國、尼加拉瓜在國際法院所採之策略與所持之立場,以及國際法院對本案之判決等三面向作研析。
    The conflict of the different national interests among countries has occurred
    since antiquity. These conflicts are complicated because economic, judicial, cultural, nationalism factors or powers of the countries are involved. Generally speaking, since it’s dealing with the fundamental interests of each party, if none of the parties involved in the case is ready to compromise, there won’t be agreement to solve the problem. In international politics, as certain topics are very sensitive for the policy and national interests of each country, it’s normal that differences and conflicts exist judicially and in reality. As a result the conflict never ends.

    Taking a look in the 80''s, the political situation of Latin American countries
    became difficult as a result of the Cold War. The United States took many measures aimed at preventing communist ideologies from being rooted in the countries of this region. In 1981, the American president, Ronald Reagan, secretly trained "las contras" in order to overthrow the Sandinista regime.

    In 1984, many civilian ships were damaged by the mines set by the US, which
    resulted in victims and death. In 1984, Nicaragua presented a lawsuit to the
    International Court of Justice, accusing the United States of violating international law. In 1986 the international court ruled in favor of Nicaragua and said the US must compensate for the damage. This case is fundamental because a small country like Nicaragua got the victory in the international court. The US refused to accept the result. Although the UN Charter indicated that all countries must resolve disputes peacefully, it is difficult to fulfill because powerful countries always refuse to accept the outcome.

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss international law concerning the
    Nicaragua case, the Sandinista revolution in 1979, as well as the position of the three parties (ICJ USA, Nicaragua).
    显示于类别:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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