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    Title: 美國憲法第一修正案 : 自由主義與新聞自由
    Other Titles: The first amendment : an inquiry over liberalism and the freedom of press
    Authors: 謝翼州;Hsieh, Yi-Chou
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    黃介正
    Keywords: 第一修正案;言論自由;新聞自由;國家機密;國家安全;知的權利;First Amendment;Freedom of speech;freedom of press;classified information;National security;Right to know
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-08-03 14:30:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 美國憲法第一修正案明確的對國會做出限制,以保障言論及新聞自由,其主要目的即是為了維護新聞傳播媒體的自主性,使媒體能提供未受到政府控制或影響的資訊與意見,促使大眾關心政府施政及公共事務,並進而促成公眾討論,形成公眾意見,以發揮監督政府的力量,為人民把關。
    而言論自由和思想自由是民主社會中最重要的自由。在歷史上,強調言論自由的思想家不在少數,例如向彌爾頓抨擊事先審查制度、約翰密爾的《自由論》。《自由論》說:「即使全人類的意見都一致,只有一人持相反的意見,也沒有理由使他緘默,正如這個人即使大權在握,也沒有理由使全人類緘默一樣。」
    憲法第一修正案說明:「國會不得制定有關下列事項的法律:確立一種宗教或禁止信教自由,剝奪言論自由或出版自由,或剝奪人民和平集會及向政府要求伸冤的權利。」此修正案位居權利法案之首,可以知道,言論自由不可被侵犯的重要性是可以想見的。雖說如此,言論自由的權利常會不可避免地和個人的、社會的甚至是國家的權益相衝突。
    新聞自由一如其他憲法所保障的基本權利一樣,並不是一種絕對的權利,政府並非不可對之加以限制。媒體常常以第四權自居,監督政府,並且打著「知的權利」為號招。但是新聞資訊市場已經是非常競爭到資訊氾濫的地步。各家媒體以商業掛帥,以利益至上的精神來經營事業。
    本論文藉由第一修正案保障言論自由以及新聞自由為主體,藉由對自由的定義,包含了涉內以及涉外,重新定義。也再次檢視二十一世紀的資訊爆炸社會裡,當新聞報導與國家利益有衝突時,美國法院對於此衝突的態度為何?
    本論文共有五章,第一章為「緒論」、第二章為「自由主義」、第三章為「美國憲法與新聞自由」、第四章為「新聞自由與國家安全協調」、第五章為「結論」。本文希望可以透過再次檢視第一修正案對於言論自由與新聞自由的定義,並在21世紀,都此權利與國家利益有衝突時,應該如何權衡,同時,也喚起新聞自律精神。
    The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, ensuring that there is no prohibition on the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble, or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances. The purpose of it is to maintain the independence of the press, allowing it to provide information to people without being controlled or influenced by the government, hoping to promote the public interests on the public issues.
    Moreover, the freedom of speech and the freedom of thought are the most important freedoms in a democratic society. Historically, there were a lot of great philosophers like Milton and Mill who emphasized the importance of freedom of speech. For example, John Milton spoke against the censorship and John Mill pointed out in his On Liberty that “If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.”
    Being the first amendment of the Bill of Rights, we can know that the importance of not violating the freedom of speech can’t be emphasized enough. However, the right to the freedom of speech might sometimes unavoidably come into conflict with rights of an individual, the interests of the society and the nation.
    Just as the freedom of press is well protected by the Constitution as all the other rights, it is not an absolute right. Government may sometimes place a restraint on it under certain circumstances. The media sometimes entitle themselves as the crusade of the fourth right or the right to know to supervise the government. However, with the explosion of information on the market, news itself has become more commercial than just the plan news.
    This thesis redefines freedom and discusses the freedom of speech and the freedom of press under the framework of the first amendment. Also, it explores the Court’s stance on the conflict between freedom of press and the national security, hoping to find a new scope in the 21st century on freedom of speech and the freedom of press.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of the Americas] Thesis

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