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    题名: 美國平權法案存廢之研究
    其它题名: A study on affirmative action in the U.S.
    作者: 蘇媺媛;Su, Mei- Yuan
    贡献者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑;Ji, Shun-Jie
    关键词: 平權法案;多樣性;高等教育;種族;平等;Affirmative Action;diversity;Higher education;Race;Equality
    日期: 2017
    上传时间: 2018-08-03 14:29:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 平權法案係為矯正美國歷史過去種族歧視之不公,利用積極性手段提供機會與資源,彌補少數族裔或弱勢族群。平權法案之存在理由包含補償、社會正義、種族平等及多樣性因素。其中引起最大爭議為1978年貝基案所奠定的多樣性理論,被視為美國高等教育之重大追求目標的「多樣性」更是法庭過去至今決定平權法案合法性之重要依據。
    “Affirmative action” means to make up for past injustice in U.S. by taking positive steps to provide more resources and chances for especially minorities and the underrepresented. There are four main reasons why affirmative action exists, including remediation, social justice, racial equality, and diversity. The most controversial factor is diversity rationale that was first established in Bakke case(1978). Diversity rationale is seen as a compelling interest in American higher education, and this is what supports the constitutionality of affirmative action from the past cases in Supreme Court.
    Nonetheless, since affirmative action was executed for more than half of the century, has it provided the right to those who are in need, or violated those who are supposed to be protected? Therefore, affirmative action has been a controversy in U.S. Opponents doubt it because of its ambiguous definition and connectivity with race, while proponents advocate learning environments with diversity, such as the campus or classrooms results in both learning and democratic outcomes.
    In 2016, the final decision of Fisher case reaffirm the constitutionality of affirmative action because of diversity in learning environments. However, the arguments will continue as long as there are different perceptions among society, governments and people. And this still determines the developments of affirmative action.
    显示于类别:[美洲研究所] 學位論文


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