|摘要: || 薩爾瓦多是中美洲面積最小及人口密度最高的國家。該國以火山地形聞名，也因此土地資源相當缺乏，自古以來社會階層分化嚴重，由寡頭階級掌握了大部分的資源，造成社會衝突頻繁。該國於1980年爆發了長達12年的內戰，雖然參戰雙方於1992年簽訂和平協議，該內戰以及長時間的社會不平等皆對其政治、文化及經濟方面留下了後遺症。其中，經濟發展緩慢、貧窮問題嚴重及缺乏教育更使得薩國兒童及青少年陷入童工問題。|
El Salvador is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is famous for its volcanic terrain, and therefore the land resources in the country are quite scarce. Since ancient times, there has been a wide gap between the rich and the poor, and most of the resources have been mastered by the oligarchy, resulting in frequent social conflicts. The 12-year Salvadoran Civil War exploded in 1980. Although the peace accords were signed in 1992 by both sides in the battle, the civil war and prolonged social inequality have left the sequelae that impact seriously on their political, cultural and economic situation. Among them, the slow development of the economy, the serious problem of poverty and the lack of education have made the children and adolescents of El Salvador be engaged in child labor.
The present study focuses on the current situation of child labor in El Salvador and its relations with education. First, we analyze the causes of child labor and introduce its situation according to gender, place of residence and age in order to investigate which groups of population is mainly affected by this problem and to undertand the details of the status of child labor in all sectors, including its worst forms, such as sugarcane cultivation, searching of curiles (small mollusks), commercial sexual exploitation, etc.
Furthermore, the development and present situation of the education system in El Salvador are described and linked to child labor in the study to examine whether child labor poses an impact on children’s rights to education and their performances at school. Finally, this thesis has indicated some of the efforts that the Salvadoran government has made to eliminate child labor problems, as well as to create more opportunities for Salvadoran children to study and to enhance the country’s education quality. The Salvadoran government has ratified those international conventions on child labor and education issues. By cooperating with the international community, they’ve also established national laws, policies, and social programs to deal with the problems mentioned above.