Estimating network-wide time-dependent link travel time is a key problem in transportation management. During the examination of users’ time-dependent route choice behaviors, the conditions and changes in traffic flow propagation in time–space networks must satisfy the first-in–first-out principle in order to be applicable for transportation planning. In this context, we developed a bilevel programming model with the first-in–first-out constraint for estimating time-dependent trip-chain link travel times under to examine users’ trip-chain route choice behaviors. Subsequently, we derived a bilevel mathematical formulation and developed an iterative algorithm based on Lagrangian gradient projection. Several numerical examples are presented herein to explain the accuracy of the model. Finally, conclusions and suggestions are presented on the basis of the research findings.
European Journal of Operational Research 267(2), p415-427