This study explores the weakest total quality management dimensions and defines the critical quality indicators for Taiwanese universities using a hybrid model using importance–performance analysis (IPA) and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP). IPA and FAHP are measured using the average value, while the FAHP is also measured using a five-point linguistic variable scale. Consistent with the literature, R&D, innovation, human resource, and knowledge management are weak quality dimensions requiring attention. However, different from contemporary research, leadership, the development of customers and markets, process management, and quality information regarding operations were not identified as weakest quality dimensions.
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 28(1-2), p.130-146