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    Title: 台美斷交後「台灣關係法」通過之決策過程
    Other Titles: The decision making process in the legislation of the Taiwan Relations Act
    Authors: 戴君維;Tai, Chun-Wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    陳一新;Chen, I-Hsin
    Keywords: 台灣關係法;艾里遜;理性決策模式;組織行為模式;政府政治模式;美國國會;Taiwan Relations Act;Allison;Rational Actor Model;Organization Behavior Model;Governmental Politics Model;U.S. Congress
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:59:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   1978年12月15日美國單方面宣布將於1979年1月1日與中華民國斷交,轉而與中華人民共和國建交。美國與中華民國間規範兩國同盟軍事合作關係的「中美共同防禦條約」也將於1979年12月31日正式終止,屆時兩國間將無任何條款來規範彼此的關係。自美國宣布斷交訊息後,美方便積極地制定一個能規範台灣間關係的依據,透過國會的努力,「台灣關係法」正式在1979年4月10日由卡特總統簽署,成為美國正式的法律。「台灣關係法」直自今日一直是台美兩方關係互動最重要的根據。

      本論文透過艾里遜與哲利考教授所提出的決策三模式:理性行為模式、組織行為模式以及政府政治模式來分析「台灣關係法」通過之決策過程。試圖分別從理性觀點、政府組織間運作的模式以及政府官員間互相妥協或討價還價三個層次,來探討「台灣關係法」通過的過程。

      第三章透過理性行為模式,本論文發現,美國政府對台灣的態度轉變是基於國際環境局勢的需要,然而基於理性思考後,美國政府不能放棄台灣,因此透過綜合議案 (後由國會改為「台灣關係法」)的提出,繼續維持台美斷交後的關係。第四章透過組織行為模式發現,美國國會在推動「台灣關係法」的過程中,透過憲法賦予的權利,依照立法行動中的標準作業程序,使「台灣關係法」於1979年4月10日正式成為法律,作為規範台美雙方斷交後關係的依據。第五章透過政府政治模式分析國會、國務院、國安會等對於「台灣關係法」簽署的態度發現雖然三個機構都很重要,但由於國會參眾議員屬於立法部門,因此是「台灣關係法」最重要的推手。

      本論文目的是透過 艾里遜與哲利考教授的決策模式,用三個不同觀點探討「台灣關係法」通過與簽署的過程。最終發現,基於美國是以現實主義為圭臬的國家,美國在做任何決定時都會以達成自身利益最大化作為主要考量。另外因國會與國會參眾議員本就屬於立法部門,因此在「台灣關係法」通過與簽署的過程中便扮演了最重要的角色。因此,本論文主旨就是,美國聯邦政府,作為一個整體,決定善用「台灣關係法」的立法讓自己國家利益最大化;國會作為聯邦政府最主要的立法部門,在「台灣關係法」的立法過程中扮演最重要推手;國會參眾議員在「台灣關係法」的立法過程中扮演比國務院與國安會官員更重要的角色。
      The main purpose of this thesis is to use Allison and Zelikow’s three models to analyze how different factors affected the legislation of the TRA. On December 15, 1978, the U.S. government unilaterally announced to break formal diplomatic relations with the ROC, and switched to make formal diplomatic relations with the PRC in January 1, 1979. At that time, however, “Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty” would be terminated by December 31, 1979. At that time, there was no formal law to define or regulate the relations between Taiwan and the U.S. After the U.S. government announced to break the diplomatic ties with the ROC, the U.S. tried hard to construct a new law to maintain the relationship between Taiwan and the United States. After striving for some time, the U.S. Congress legislated the “Taiwan Relations Act (TRA),” and President Jimmy Carter signed it into a federal law on April 10, 1979. Thus, the TRA then became a foundation regulating the relationship between Taiwan and the U.S. after 1979.

      By applying Graham Allison and Zelikow’s three decision-making models, namely, Rational Actor Model (RAM), Organization Behavior Model (OBM), and Government Politics Model (GPM), this study will analyze the legislation of the TRA from the perspective of rationalism, operation of the organization and the competition between important governmental units.

      By applying RAM in Chapter Three, this study finds that the changing position of the U.S. was the result of the international situation at that time. On the one hand, the U.S. needed the PRC to break the deadlock in its relations with the Soviet Union. But, on the other hand, the U.S. couldn’t let Taiwan go. As a result, the U.S. government proposed a legislation to maintain its relationship with Taiwan. By applying OBM in Chapter Four, this research finds that the Congress had successfully used its power authorized by the Constitution to legislate the TRA, and by following the SOPs of legislation, the TRA was signed into public law on April 4, 1979. In Chapter Five, this research analyzes the attitude of the U.S. Congress, DOS and NSC toward the legislation of TRA, and finds that the U.S. Congress was the key character in the legislation of TRA, although both the DOS and the NSC were important in the legislation of TRA, the U.S. Congress was the most important legislative brunch according to the U.S. Constitution. As a result, the Senators and the representatives of the House played more important roles than DOS and NSC officials in the decision-making process of the legislation of TRA.

      The United States, as a country showing respect to realism, would make the decision which could maximize its national interest in the legislation of the TRA. Since the U.S. Congress is the primary legislative brunch; therefore, it was the key character in the legislation of the TRA. So were its Senators and representatives of the House. Therefore, the main theme of this thesis is that the U.S. federal government, as a whole, decided to make good use of the legislation of the TRA to maximize its national interest; the U.S. Congress, as the primary legislative brunch of the federal government, played the most important role among related governmental agencies in the process of the legislation of the TRA; the Senators and the representatives of the House played more important roles than DOS and NSC officials in the decision-making process of the legislation of TRA.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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