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    Title: 戒嚴時期教科書中的「共匪」形象之敘事分析
    Other Titles: Narrative analysis on the image of "communist bandit" in the schooltextbooks during Taiwan's martial law period
    Authors: 林献凱;Lin, Hsien-Kai
    Contributors: 淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士班
    陳麗華;Chen, Li-Hua
    Keywords: 戒嚴時期;教科書;共匪;匪諜;大陸同胞;反共義士;敘事分析;Martial Law Period;textbook;Communist Bandit;Communist Bandit Spy;Compatriots on the Mainland;anti-communist martyrs;narrative analysis
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:59:25 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究擬探討台灣戒嚴時期教科書裡面呈現的「共匪」形象,來分析戒嚴時期教科書裡面呈現的「共匪」形象建構出怎樣的世界觀。「共匪」世界觀建構深深影響了台灣好幾個世代的人,可說是民國八O年代以前台灣人共同的歷史記憶,目前尚未有相關研究,因此研究者認為這個議題極具研究價值。

    本研究文獻探討首先由探討「教育」、「反教育」與「非教育」著手,其次探討本研究的時空背景戒嚴時期,最後探討本研究分析共匪形象採用的觀點「文化霸權」、「國家機器」與「政治社會化」理論。透過敘事分析研究法拆解共匪的形象構成要素後,透過上述三個理論分析對兒童可能的影響為何,並探討這樣的內容建構出怎樣的「共匪」世界觀。

    本研究藉由敘事分析法的「情節」、「角色塑造」與「場景」逐一分析討論本研究的研究主題「戒嚴時期教科書中的共匪」,研究結果如下:

    情節部分「共匪把人當牛馬」描寫了在共匪來到後大陸人民普遍生活變差的景象,讓兒童以最能切身感受的方式理解共匪的壞。「可憐的匪區兒童」透過課文陳述以兒童眼光來看共匪的惡行,藉由共匪統治下兒童的遭遇讓兒童能更加感同身受共匪的壞。「反攻大陸去」則是戒嚴時期教科書的中心思想,灌輸兒童家鄉在大陸而不是在台灣可能導致兒童對家鄉認同產生混淆。

    角色塑造部分「殺人不眨眼的共匪」透過生動的殺人情景描述不只直接的呈現了共匪的壞,更讓共匪與道德淪喪的形象緊密結合,過於詳細的殺人場景描寫恐對兒童造成不良影響。「擁戴國軍的大陸同胞」描寫了因為共匪的統治下大陸人民過著水深火熱的生活,因此大陸人民迫切渴望國軍盡快班師回朝,教科書中大陸同胞的死亡幾乎都是要呼應本情節的緣故。「起義來歸的反共義士」描寫了受不了共匪殘暴不仁的統治大陸同胞紛紛逃離,並扮演親身經歷共匪邪惡的見證者。「無孔不入的匪諜」是共匪的爪牙,藉由課本塑造出來的機智兒童扮演舉發匪諜的角色,傳達潛伏的匪諜終將都被舉發的意象。

    場景部分「天堂與地獄」透過兩種形式的「天堂與地獄」描寫來呈現共匪的壞,一種是「大陸在共匪來之前是天堂,共匪來之後是地獄」的意象傳達,另一種是「三民主義自由地區對比共產主義淪陷匪區」的生活差異描寫,來加強自由地區台灣的好與淪陷匪區共匪政權的壞。

    對於本議題後續的研究,本研究已經完成在台灣戒嚴時期「蔣匪」眼中的「共匪」形象部分,期待有研究者進行「共匪」眼中的「蔣匪」形象部分,透過「蔣匪」與「共匪」雙方對於對方的觀點以補充本研究不足之處。
    The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the image of ‘communist bandit’is presented in the schooltextbooks during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period and how the worldview is constructed by the presentation of ‘communist bandit’in the schooltextbooks during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period. The presentation of ‘communist bandit’ in the schooltextbooks during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period deeply influence generations in Taiwan, almost can be said to be one of the collective memory of Taiwanese people before 1980s`.Before this study, there is no such study about this subject, so I think this subject is really valuable to research.

    This study starts from‘educative’,’non-educative’and‘mis-education’.
    Second, this study analyze space-time background of this study‘Taiwan’s Martial Law Period’.Last this study analyze the point of view of‘cultural hegemony’,’state apparatus’and‘political socialization’.Use narrative analysis to analyze the elements of the image of‘communist bandit’and analyze how these elements construct the worldview of‘communist bandit’by the point of view of these three theories.

    This study use ‘plot’,’character’and ‘setting’of narrative analysis to analyze the subject of this study ‘communist bandit in the schooltextbooks during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period’.The analyze result of the study is as bellows:

    ‘Plot’:’Communist Bandit Enslave people’describe after communist bandit come compatriots on the mainland reduce the standard of living to make children realize the evil of communist bandit through daily life.’Poor Mainland children’through the eye of children to observe the evil of communist bandit and tell children to empathy how children will be treated under communist bandit‘s government.’Retake the mainland’is the central idea of the schooltextbooks during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period.It tells children their hometown is on mainland not Taiwan may confuse their hometown identity .

    ’Character’: ‘Murderous Communist Bandit‘ directly present the evil of communist bandit by vivid murder scene and combine communist bandit with the image of ‘moral bankruptcy’.Over-detailed description about murder scene may cause bad influence on children physical and mental development.’The Republic of China Armed Forces Demands Allegiance of Compatriots on the Mainland’
    describes how compatriots on the mainland desire the triumphant return of The Republic of China Armed Forces when suffering under the rule of communist bandit government, almost all compatriots on the mainland death in textbook is because of this reason.’The Defecting Anti-Communist Martyrs’describes compatriots on the mainland can not stand the Reign of Terror of communist bandit government trying to escape at all costs and play the witness role about the evil communist bandit.’ Communist Spy is Everywhere’subscribe communist spy is the minions of communist bandit.Smart children characters created by textbook is the whistleblower of communist spy that symbol all the communist spy will finally be caught.

    ‘Setting’:’Heaven and Hell’present two diffent type of hell to prove the evil of communist bandit.One of them is the image description of ‘Before communist bandit come the mainland is heaven, after they come the mainland become hell’Another of them is ‘The life difference description between‘Freedom area of Three People''s Principles and occupied communist bandit’s area of communism’to lay emphasis on the good of freedom area ‘Taiwan’ and the evil of occupied area ‘communist bandit’s government’.

    About follow-up research, this research has finished the‘communist bandit’in the viewpoint of‘Chiang Kai-Shek bandit ’during Taiwan’s Martial Law Period.
    I wish there will be researcher to research the‘Chiang Kai-Shek bandit’in the viewpoint of‘communist bandit’.Through how‘Chiang Kai-Shek bandit’and‘communist bandit’see each other to improve the shortcomings of this research.
    Appears in Collections:[課程與教學研究所] 學位論文

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