本研究旨在探討新北市國小學童運動參與行為和體適能之現況與關係，分析不同背景變項與運動參與行為和體適能這二個變項之間的差異情形，並探討變項之間的相關性。本研究採用問卷調查法，以新北市國民小學六年級學生為對象，正式問卷施測共計發出701份，收回642份，有效問卷共579份，有效問卷比率90.19%。在回收問卷後，依據所得資料以描述統計、卡方檢定（chi-square tests）、斯皮爾曼等級相關係數（Spearman Rank Correlation） 等統計方法進行分析，獲致以下研究結果：一、新北市國民小學六年級學童在課餘時間的運動參與行為現況，大致上有達到建議標準。二、不同背景變項的新北市國民小學六年級學童在運動參與行為和體適能表現上有顯著差異。三、不同運動參與行為對體適能的測驗表現有顯著差異。四、參與不同的運動類型對於體適能的表現較無影響力。 最後，根據研究結果提出建議，以供學校行政、教師與未來相關研究參考。 This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the participation behaviors in sports and the physical fitness status among elementary school students in New Taipei City. This study has considered students’ background to determine the differences between sports participation and physical fitness status. The research was based on the self-designed questionnaires that were issued to the target six-graders in the elementary schools in New Taipei City. There are 701 copies were sent and 642 copies returned. The valid questionnaires are 579. The valid rate is 90.19%. This study applied Chi-Square tests and the Spearman Rank Correlation to analyze the data. The findings of the study have been listed as follows: 1. The elementary school six-graders in New Taipei City had reached the expected standards in their participation behaviors in sports during spare time. 2. According to various demographic variables, there is a significant differences between the participation behaviors in sports and the physical fitness status. 3. Different participation behaviors in sports did not impact on the performance of physical fitness. 4. Participating in different sports resulted only a weak influence on the performance of physical fitness. Finally, this study provides some suggestions for school administrators, teachers, and researchers.