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    題名: 歐盟觀光發展政策 : 以法國奧德省永續觀光發展為例
    其他題名: EU tourism development policies : a study case of "Aude" sustainable tourism development in France
    作者: 程于恆;Cheng, Yu-Heng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼;Yuan, Yi-mond
    關鍵詞: 歐盟;永續觀光;法國奧德省;EU;Sustainable tourism;Aude in France
    日期: 2016
    上傳時間: 2017-08-24 23:57:33 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 觀光發展為一個促進世界經濟成長的工業,為國家、城市及地區帶來經濟的成長及繁榮。各大洲有許多觀光市場的發展與興起:歐洲(法國)、美洲(美國)、亞洲(中國)、中東及非洲。在觀光產業蓬勃發展之下,著名觀光地區面臨旺季人潮擁擠、自然景觀與文化遺跡受損無法修復等影響。
    法國因其地理環境、多樣化的自然景觀與浪漫的文化氣息,每年吸引大批人潮前往法國觀光,成為廣大觀光客首選之觀光目的地。同時,許多偏遠地區認為藉由觀光發展及遊客的到來發展其經濟;聯合國世界觀光組織於1980年代末期意識到觀光資產需能夠持續性及永續存留及保護的問題,推動永續經營觀念及落實於產業經營。觀光產業永續發展重於對觀光自然及文化資源的保護、修復及維持並分散旺季時期觀光人數、避免交通阻塞,考量資源需求及其回收利用,因此歐盟鼓勵會員國發展多元化的觀光模式。
    法國奧德省為一個典型的例子,其自然景觀與文化遺跡受損,呼籲法國政府重視觀光永續發展,在兩方面支持偏遠地區:使較不有名或文化遺跡及自然景觀為受保護的地區能夠吸引觀光客,同時,維持其觀光資源。奧德省透過歐盟與法國政府的合作推動永續觀光,成為觀光目的地並達到區域發展之目標。法國奧德省地區觀光發展亦檢視法國觀光永續發展在歐洲、政府與地方政府的合作推動下帶來的結果。
    本研究分為四個部分:第一章說明研究動機與目的、研究方法、範圍與限制;第二章論述觀光的發展起源與定義並說明永續觀光的定義;第三章說明歐盟觀光政策的沿革與發展;第四章論述法國觀光的優勢及現況,並透過其永續觀光政策檢視法國奧德省永續觀光推動成效,使其作為其他鄉村地區之學習經驗。
    Tourism development is largely contributing to world''s economy as an industrial sector; it is bringing economic growth and liveliness to every country, city and region. It constitutes many new tourism markets in all continents: Europe (France,…), America (USA,…), Asia (China,…), the Middle East, Africa. Under the booming of tourism industry, top touristic areas are facing over crowded monuments, endangered natural landscapes, which are bearing possible irreversible impact changes. They need to prevent their cultural heritage damaged risks. Historical France is benefiting of geographical environment, varied natural landscape and romantic culture, it does attract large waves of visitors to France, and has become the preferred destination for majority of tourists. As well, more remote regions would think to develop tourism and rely on more visitors to develop their economy. However, the United Nations World Tourism Organization noticed that tourism assets need to be maintained, sustainable and protected, and wait till late 1980s, when WTO brought awareness to sustainable development concept and the implications of industrial operations. Sustainable development of tourism industries focus on the protection of natural and cultural tourism resources, it should repair, maintain, and prevent intensive raise of tourists number, water and energy demands, traffic jams, accompanied by saturation of facilities, or wastes recycling and fast building. Against these critical situations, the EU support member states for diverse sightseeing tours.
    The case study of Aude department in France has been chosen, as it represents a typical example; for its natural landscape and cultural relics suffered damages and call French government to focus on the development of sustainable tourism development to support these more remote areas in both ways: attract tourists’ visit around the year.Although their historic or natural resources not renown and, protect, maintain their resources in the meantime. Aude accessed to EU and French government joint support to become a popular touristic destination, with regional development in the respect of sustainable development. This study of the development of tourism in France Aude region also analyses localities and National or European coordination and supports for sustainable tourism development in France.
    This study is divided into four parts: The first chapter explains the motivation and purpose of research, research methods, scope and limits; The second chapter discusses the origin and development of tourism with explained definitions of sustainable tourism; the third chapter described the EU''s Tourism Policy history and development; the fourth chapter discusses the advantages and status of tourism in France and evaluate France Aude sustainable tourism policy measures and useful experiences for other countries regional development.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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