近年來的烏克蘭事件凸顯出其國族認同分裂的情形。其國族意識源於十九世紀，但在1920-1930年代其國族運動發展加深烏克蘭獨立後國家發展方向的選擇。故本文研究目的主要探討： 1.1920-1930年代烏克蘭國族運動興起之因，根據本文的資源動員理論涉及到菁英掌握哪些資源； 2.此時國族運動是否得到各階層和社會群體的支持，因此有必要提及其資源，即菁英、農民、工人和農民反對勢力對國族問題的態度； 3.根據資源動員的過程探討國族認同從烏克蘭自我意識的形成，到含有蘇維埃意識形態的轉變。 筆者認為，烏克蘭國族運動在革命內戰時期已形成「烏克蘭」國家之觀念，至蘇聯成立之初期，菁英透過當時局勢、政治權利、組織和政策等資源加強群眾動員的基礎。然而菁英與群眾在訴求不一致的情況下缺少共同目標，使得烏克蘭國族運動在此時無法成為國家實體的主因。另外，在蘇聯體制下，烏克蘭保留國家地方形式上的獨立，使得其國族認同產生轉變，導致獨立後國家發展方向分裂的局勢。 The incidents in Ukraine highlighted its disruption of national identity in recent years. The nation consciousness of Ukraine originated from 19th century, but the development of national movement in the 1920s-1930s deepened the choices of national development after Ukraine Independence. Thus, the purposes of the thesis would mainly focus on: 1. To investigate the rise of Ukrainian national movement by the events in 1920s-1930s. According to the Resource mobilization theory to explore which kind of resources were possessed by elites; 2. At this time, the importance of whether the national movement got the support of all sectors and the social groups would be crucial, therefore, it’s necessary to mention the attitude of elites, peasants, workers and peasants’ counterforce towards the Nation issue; 3. Referred to the process of resource mobilization to discuss the transition of Ukrainian national identity from the formation of self-consciousness to which contained the Soviet ideology. The author concludes that the Ukrainian national movement has formed the Ukraine State concept during the civil war. In the initial stage of the Soviet Union were established, the Ukraine elites strengthened the foundation of mass mobilization through the political rights, organizations, policies and etc. However, the elites and the masses were lack of a common goal due to the different appeals. It became the major reason of why Ukrainian national movement was unable to get a national entity at this time. In addition, under the Soviet system, Ukraine retained formal independence, so that it generated the transformation of national identity, leading to the disruption of nation development after independence.