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    Title: 英國柴契爾與美國雷根時期特殊關係之研究: 以福克蘭群島戰爭為例
    Other Titles: Research on the special relationship between Britain and the United States of the period of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan : a case study in the Falklands war
    Authors: 劉士漢;Liu, Shih-Han
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-Ching
    Keywords: 殖民情結;族群認同;邱吉爾三環外交政策;英美特殊關係;福克蘭群島戰爭;親美遠歐;波蘭實施戒嚴法;空襲利比亞;戰略上的差異;國家利益;新保守主義;反共;反蘇;反恐;國際危險;福克蘭群島;戰略上的夥伴;colonial complex;Ethnic identity;Three Ring Diplomatic Policy of Churchill;Special Relationship between Britain and America;Falklands War;Pro-US Far Europe;Implementation of the Martial Law in Poland;Air Attack in Libya;strategic difference;National Interest;Neoconservatism;Anti-Communist;Anti-Soviet;anti-terrorism;international dangers;Falkland Islands;strategic partner
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:57:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   基於殖民情結與族群認同,英國與美國始終都維持著友好的關係;在外交政策上,美國更是英國最重要的盟友。二戰以降,歷經冷戰,在「邱吉爾三環外交政策」的架構下,從而形塑出「英美特殊關係」。進入英國首相柴契爾夫人與美國總統隆納˙雷根時期,更是英美特殊關係的高峰期。1982年英阿兩國的「福克蘭群島戰爭」乃是最好的証明。
      從柴契爾首相與雷根總統時期英美兩國的主要外交課題,不難看出英國「親美遠歐」的外交立場。時值1981年「波蘭實施戒嚴法」與1986年「空襲利比亞」,面對美國的積極與強勢的態度,英國皆採取支持美國的立場。雖然同時期,英美兩國依舊皆存在戰略上的差異,然而終究都得以化險為夷,而未損及英美良好的特殊關係。相對地,基於捍衛英國的國家利益,英國與其他歐洲國家還有歐體間同時期的關係卻皆近乎決裂,甚至降到了冰點。
      柴契爾首相與雷根總統時期英美良好的特殊關係,從「新保守主義」的經濟政策以及「反共」與「反蘇」還有「反恐」的外交政策等理念上的相近即可見一般。在柴契爾首相與雷根總統的合作下,英國與美國共同處理諸多國際危險,其中又以福克蘭群島戰爭為最。福克蘭群島戰爭期間,美國提供英國諸多援助;加以配合英國的反擊,最終協助英國戰勝阿根廷並奪回福克蘭群島。美國的援助不僅鞏固了與英國的戰略上的夥伴的地位;更加地証明了英美良好的特殊關係。
      從歷史的羈絆、國際關係的演變、邱吉爾三環外交政策的深化還有柴契爾首相與雷根總統的契合,皆可見在特殊關係的架構下,英美關係時至今日的根深蒂固。此外,英國身處歐洲與歐盟,因此在外交立場上,英國終究都勢必要在美國與歐洲間維持平衡的關係,而不致遭受親美遠歐的質疑。外交政策上的取捨將考驗英國歷屆政府的智慧。
    Based on the colonial complex and the ethnic identity, Britain and America have always maintained friendly relations; in the diplomatic policy, America is even the most important ally of Britain. After the World War II, through the Cold War, In the structure of the “Three Ring Diplomatic Policy of Churchill”, the “Special Relationship between Britain and America” has been shaped. Later, in the period of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the American President Ronald Reagan, it was even the peak period of the Special Relationship between Britain and America. The best proof is the “Falklands War” between Britain and Argentina in 1982.
    From the main diplomatic issue of Britain and America in the period of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the American President Ronald Reagan, it is not difficult to see the diplomatic policy of the “Pro-US Far Europe” of Britain. A time when the “Implementation of the Martial Law in Poland” in 1981 and the “Air Attack in Libya” in 1986, faced on the active and strong attitude of America, Britain supported America both. Though the strategic difference between Britain and America was still existed in the same period, eventually, Britain and America could both save the day and never damaged the good special relationship between Britain and America. However, based on the protection of the national interest of Britain, the relationship between Britain and other European countries and also the European Community not only almost broke but also dropped to the freezing point in the same period.
    The good special relationship between Britain and America in the period of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the American President Ronald Reagan, we can see the similarity from the economic policy of the “Neoconservatism” and the diplomatic policy of the “Anti-Communist” and the “Anti-Soviet” and also the “Anti-Terrorism”. By the cooperation of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the American President Ronald Reagan, Britain and America handled many international dangers together, especially the Falklands War. During the Falklands War, America provided Britain many assistances; plus, with the counterattack of Britain, finally, America helped Britain to defeat Argentina and retake Falkland Islands. The assistances of America not only consolidated the status of the strategic partner with Britain but also proved the good special relationship between Britain and America.
    From the fetter of the history, the evolution of the international relation, the exacerbation of the Three Ring Diplomatic Policy of Churchill, and the Conjunction of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the American President Ronald Reagan, we can see in the structure of the special relationship, the stand-up of the relationship between Britain and America until now. In addition, Britain comes from Europe and is a member in the European Union. Therefore, instead of suffering from the doubt of the Pro-US Far Europe, in the diplomatic position, eventually, Britain must maintain balanced relations between America and Europe. The acceptance or rejection of the diplomatic policy will test the wisdom of all previous governments of Britain.
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