|摘要: ||1980年，薩爾瓦多內戰爆發時，該國正經歷一段不公平且壓迫的時期。衝突期間，執政黨－國家共和聯盟（ARENA）和散佈共產黨意識形態的反對黨－馬蒂民族解放陣線（FMLN）相互對峙。如同其他第三世界的國家，薩爾瓦多是美蘇雙方間接較勁的地方；當時，美國支持前者，蘇聯則是後者。薩爾瓦多內戰就算過了十年，仍然沒有可行的和平解決辦法，局勢持續惡化中。正因如此，聯合國於1990年以違反人權，呼籲交戰雙方尋求和平解決。1991年，聯合國派遣觀察團（ONUSAL）至該國；1992年1月16日，雙方簽署查普特佩克和平協議（Chapultepec Peace Accords）。|
When the civil war broke out in El Salvador in 1980, the country was undergoing a period of injustice and repression. During the conflict, two main groups were confronting each other; the ARENA; political party at the head of the government, and the FMLN; a non-official political group, influenced by communist ideology. El Salvador, as many other third world’s countries, was a given space for indirect confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. This last one was supporting the FMLN and its allies furnishing armaments, while the United States were supporting the government. The situation in El Salvador was worsening, and after ten years of con-flict, no peaceful resolution was conceivable yet. This is why in 1990, the UN answered to the violation of the human rights and to the call of both the ARENA and the FMLN for external help, to find a peaceful solution. In 1991, the UN launched its ONUSAL mission in El Salvador. One year later, the 16th January 1992, the Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed.
The ONUSAL is an excellent example of UN missions’ success, and this thesis will discuss the different elements which permitted such an achievement.
Three main questions guided our researches. The first one concerns the role of the UN and the reasons of its intervention in El Salvador. The second one asked how the UN implemented its policies during the Peacemaking process and what strategies it developed. The last question was raised in order to understand which measures taken permitted the reconstruction of the country. Such guiding lines should help us to understand the reasons for UN success in El Salvador. Howev-er, the still ongoing question of the gangs was not forgotten and we attempted to explain clearly the issue and the consequences it has for the Salvadoran society.
This thesis focuses on the UN’s role in the reconstruction of the central american state after the civil war. As theories argue, the necessity to resolve a conflict resides in the good understanding of the causes of war and in the capacity of an external party to achieve negotiations among the bar-gaining parties. The establishment of democratic institutions and the big consideration for the well-being of the society which allowed actions and aids for education, health and reconciliation are vital elements for a durable peace.
This paper reminds us the different elements which should be taken into consideration in order to succeed in peace building, peacekeeping, and nation-building. At the end of this research, a comparison with the case of Somalia is attempted in order to underline these vital elements. The comparison between a success and a failure can underline the important elements for the good achievement of a mission, and in that way, prevent future failure. Indeed, lessons are not always learnt and mistakes still occur too often. This paper was written in the objective to remind that all factors, might them be political, economic and social, should be taken into account.