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    Title: 中華帝國衰落之適應: 以魏源、郭嵩燾、嚴復為例
    Other Titles: Adapting to imperial decline : a study of three intellectuals in late Qing Dynasty
    Authors: 周孟翰;Chou, Meng-han
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    何思因;Ho, Szu-yin
    Keywords: 清朝;帝國衰退;魏源;郭嵩燾;嚴復;Qing Dynasty;Imperial Decline;Wei Yuan;Guo Songtao;Yen Fu
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:56:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國近年來的發展有目共睹,終於邁向了富強之路,重返世界強國之林。自乾隆末年起,清朝開始出現內部治理問題,而西方列強也挾帶優勢武力叩關,中國除了面臨內憂外患,也頻吃敗仗。民族自信心受到極大的打擊,過去150多年成為中國人心中恥辱的世紀。本文將討論什麼原因阻礙有著輝煌歷史與發展的中華帝國有效應對國內動亂與適應國際壓力。

    本文討論起自鴉片戰爭,終於維新運動前。利用相關專書、史料、自傳與日記研究三位知識分子:魏源、郭嵩燾、嚴復,來看出當時中國內外環境的趨勢走向與演進,並了解中國如何因應局勢的變化。這三人各自在所屬時代中皆具代表性。無論是第一位完整介紹西方地理的魏源、首位駐使外國的郭嵩燾、或是系統性介紹與翻譯西方專書的嚴復,他們皆處於保守的政治與社會環境中,然而他們務實看待西方的態度,為中國現代化提供了前瞻的思想基礎。

    仕途不順、遭控賣國與冷落、受制於朝廷決策體系中專制君主的突出角色,以上三點關鍵因素大幅制約著上述知識分子能力與才識的發揮。再者,中國面對西方衝擊反應遲緩受到了傳統、政治、及財政的三個因素影響。中國的表現不如人讓中國帝制免不了覆滅一途,錯失改革最佳時機也使得現代化之路走得更遠也更艱辛。
    The recent development of China is conspicuous. It finally marches on the path of modernization and restore its position as a world power. However, since the final years of 18th century, Qing dynasty started to suffer from internal governance problems and tension with western countries. China lost several wars and ceded lands to foreign countries. Thus Chinese regards the past 150 years as a century of humiliation. This thesis will look at the problems why China with its glorious history and achievement failed to tackle internal uprisings and external pressures during the timeframe from First Opium War to Hundred Days’ Reform.

    By studying three intellectuals in late Qing dynasty: Wei Yuan, Guo Songtao, and Yen Fu, the thesis will not only find out the trend and evolution of China’s domestic and international environment, but also examine the ways how China adapted to its imperial decline. The three intellectuals all stood out in their own era, Wei Yuan is the first Chinese scholar who thoroughly introduced world geography to China. Guo Songtao is the first Chinese ambassador in history, and Yen Fu is the first Chinese scholar who systematically translated several western books into Chinese language. Although living in a conservative society, they viewed the west with pragmatic attitude, allowing them to develop ideological foundation for China’s modernization.

    Three key points significantly restrict their ability: unsuccessful official career, marginalized, and the distinct role of the emperor in the Qing decision making process. Furthermore, tradition, politic, and finance all have an impact on China’s response to the decline. China’s underperformance of modernization in late Qing dynasty invariably made the imperial system collapse.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of International Affairs And Strategic Studies] Thesis

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