黨群關係，是指政黨與群眾之間相互作用、相互影響的狀態，具體表現為黨與群眾之間聯繫和連接的方式。中共之獲得政權，即是以「無產階級專政」為訴求，群眾的支持建構了中共政權的合法性，然而執政基本上治理的對象即是民眾，在擁有政權又要治理賦予政權合法性的群眾，中共之領導人如何處理?應對?本研究以話語權力論、內捲化的新制度主義為研究途徑，並以文獻分析法與歷史研究法為研究方法，對毛澤東迄至胡錦濤四位領導人時期，中國大陸所面對的整體世界局勢、個別黨群關係理論並實踐，乃至於所遭遇的挑戰進行整理。 發現由毛澤東迄至胡錦濤的黨群路線，可以看到毛澤東訴諸無產階級而建構了政權的合法性。然而自鄧小平一手擘畫中國經濟發展藍圖之後，經濟先富的小部份人結合黨官一體的貪腐份子，又形成了中共內部的另一群「特權」，而成為群眾抗爭、抗議的對象。繼任的江澤民採取高壓的維穩手法，未能真正消弭民眾所抗爭的貪腐暨暴富暨特權份子，反倒讓中國內部的社會矛盾加劇。這也是緣何胡錦濤續任之後，其群眾路線強調拉近貧富差距的「小康」社會的訴求以及消弭貪腐、強化黨紀的肅貪策略。 Party-masses relationships refer to the interactions and mutual influences between a party and masses. The embodiment of these relationships comes from the ways connecting and linking the party and masses. The Chinese Communist Party took power by appealing for the “dictatorship of the proletariats”. The support from masses constructed the legality of the regime established by the Chinese Communist Party. However, the general public is the subject being governed by the ruling party. How does the leader of the Chinese Communist Party deal with and respond to the situation under which on one hand he possesses the political power and on the other hand he has to govern the masses having the legality of the regime? In this study, the right of discourse serves as the basis while the new institutionalism featuring involution is adopted as the research path. Literature review and historical research are applied as the research methods. Based on the above mentioned structure, this study aims at organizing the overall global situation encountered by China, the theory and practice of individual party-masses relationships and the challenges faced by China during the ruling periodsunder the four leaders from Mao Zedong to Hu Jintao. It is found that Mao Zedong’s appeal to proletariats facilitated to construct the legality of the regime as the leaders starting from Mao Zedong to Hu Jintao went for the party mass line. However, since Deng Xiaoping initiated the blueprint of China’s economic development, a few people who got rich earlier together with the corrupted ones from the party and bureaucrats had formed another group of people enjoying “privileges” within the Chinese Communist Party. Thus, they became the target which the masses protested against. The successor Jiang Zemin adopted stability maintenance with coercion but he was unable to truly eliminate the corrupted, privileged and overnight rich whom the masses fought against. Instead, social contradictions were even deepened in China. This was why Hu Jintao, after taking office, went for a mass line that emphasized on “moderately prosperous” society reducing the gaps between the poor and the rich as well as the anti-corruption strategy aiming at eliminating corruption and strengthening party discipline.