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    Title: 酜酸酐之製程研究 : 流體化床反應器 vs. 填充床反應器
    Other Titles: Process research for the production of phthalic anhydride : fluidized-bed reactor vs. packed-bed reactor
    Authors: 戴邱惠;Tai, Chiu-Hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學化學工程與材料工程學系碩士班
    陳錫仁
    Keywords: 流體化床;填充床;淘析現象;爆炸界限;酜酸酐;Fluidized-Bed;Packed-Bed;Elutriation;Flammability Limits;Phthalic anhydride
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:49:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 酜酸酐是最重要的有機化工原料之一,其主要衍生物有鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯、二辛酯和二異丁酯等,用作PVC等的塑化劑 (容易加工及變軟)。本研究分別以流體化床反應器與填充床反應器進行酜酸酐程序之製程設計。
    在模擬過程中因考慮製程的安全,故酜酸酐製程之原料鄰二甲苯與空氣的進料比,流體化床反應器為5 mol%,填充床反應器為1 mol%。在兩種不同反應器製程上,皆以酜酸酐 (PA) 年產量為七萬公噸、純度達99.9 mol%、馬來酐(MA)純度大於95 mol%為設計目標。流體化床反應器製程所產生之蒸汽量:(1)反應器內之高壓蒸汽量為2446 kmol/h,(2)反應器外之高壓蒸汽量為199 kmol/h、中壓蒸汽量為148 kmol/h、低壓蒸汽量為81 kmol/h;而填充床反應器製程產生之蒸汽量為:(1)反應器內之高壓蒸汽量為3794 kmol/h,(2)反應器外之高壓蒸汽量為669 kmol/h、中壓蒸汽量為533 kmol/h、低壓蒸汽量為190 kmol/hr。另外對於流體化床反應器與填充床反應器產製酜酸酐製程進行熱能整合,以求有效達到節能減碳之目的,經過熱能整合後的流體化床製程,其熱公用設施節省了32%的能源,冷公用設施節省37%;在填充床反應器的製程上,熱公用設施節省27%,冷公用設施節省28%。不同反應器的製程比較上吾人發現:(1)流體化床反應器因空氣進料少,故CO2生成量較少;(2)兩反應器程序中的蒸汽產生量填充床多於流體化床程序;(3)於填充床反應器中產生的高壓蒸氣量為多於流體化床反應器,(4)製程安全上,流體化床反應器在進行高放熱氧化反應由於觸媒粒子的均勻作用較為安全。
    本論文之流體化床反應器與填充床反應器產製酜酸酐之設計,主要使用 “Aspen Plus” 與 “SuperTarget” 兩種化工程序軟體,分別用於程序合成與設計、狹點分析及換熱器網路合成。
    The primary use of phthalic anhydride is as a chemical intermediate in the production of plastics from vinyl chloride. Phthalate esters, which function as plasticizers, are derived from phthalic anhydride. The study focuses on the design of different reactor types, i.e., fluidized-bed and packed-bed reactor.
    Due to the process safety, the feed ratio of o-xylene to air in fluidized-bed is set at 5 mol%, and 1 mol% in packed-bed. Both design goals are set at a plant capacity of 70,000 metric tons per year of phthalic anhydride with purity 99.9 mol%, and the purity of maleic anhydride greater than 95 mol%. In the study, we found that the fluidized-bed process produced: (1) inside the reactor-- 2446 kmol/h of high-pressure steam, and (2) outside the reactor-- 199 kmol/h of high-pressure steam, 148 kmol/h of medium-pressure steam and 81 kmol/h of low-pressure steam; the packed-bed process produced: (1) inside the reactor-- 3794 kmol/h of high-pressure steam, and (2) outside the reactor-- 669 kmol/h of high-pressure steam, 533 kmol/h of medium-pressure steam and 190 kmol/h of low-pressure steam. In order to reach the targets of energy savings and carbon reduction, it is necessary to carry out the pinch technology on the two different processes. We found that 32% of hot utilities, and 37% of cold utilities can be saved in fluidized-bed process. And in the packed-bed process, we can save 27% hot utilities, and 28% cold utilities. Overall, we summarize the phthalic anhydride production via the partial oxidation of o-xylene as follows: (1) The fluidized-bed process has a lower air feed than the packed-bed process; therefore, it produces less carbon dioxide. (2) In terms of steam generations, the packed-bed process prevails. (3) The generation of high pressure steam, the packed-bed reactor is greater than fluidized-bed. (4) As to process safety, the fluidized-bed process is considered safer than the packed-bed process because of the homogeneous effect of catalyst particles on the highly exothermic chemical reactions.
    It should be noted that, in this thesis, we used two kinds of software-Aspen Plus and SuperTarget. The first is applied to implement the process synthesis and design; the second is applied to perform the pinch analysis and the synthesis of heat exchanger network.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute & Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering] Thesis

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