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    Title: 《孟子》的現代詮釋 : 以心、性、天、形、氣、命為探究中心
    Other Titles: Modern interpretation of Mencius : a study of mind, nature, heaven, body, chi, fate
    Authors: 徐力偉;Shiu, Li-Wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    袁保新;Yuan, Pao-Hsin
    Keywords: 孟子;;;;;;;徐復觀;牟宗三;唐君毅;楊儒賓;袁保新;Mencius;mind;nature;Heaven;body;Chi;Fate;Fu-Kuan Hsu;Chun-Yi Tang;Tzung-San Mou;Rurbin Yang;Pao-Hsin Yuan
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:47:20 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文的撰寫目的,旨在論證「心、性、天、形、氣、命」是一組探究《孟子》不可偏廢的核心意義。過去的研究往往僅將「心、性、天」作為探究中心,而以這三者作為最優先的意義來解讀「形、氣、命」的意涵,卻未同時考慮「心、性、天」與「形、氣、命」它們六者間的關聯。這樣的解讀,不僅將「形、氣、命」的意義侷限在「心、性、天」底下,同時也可能窄化了《孟子》心性論的豐富底蘊。因此,同時考量「心、性、天」與「形、氣、命」的關係,來重新探討此「六者一組」的意義,應是本文可以有的試探。
    本文的研究範圍限定在當代學者的孟學詮釋,且集中在徐復觀、唐君毅、牟宗三、楊儒賓、袁保新等五位學者的對於「心、性、天、形、氣、命」的研究成果來進行論述。當中,除了梳理各家的說法,同時也提出了筆者對於這些研究成果的相關看法與疑慮。最後,再透過《孟子》文獻,逐一回顧與對照各家學者所提出來的觀點,並進一步整理出「心、性、天、形、氣、命」的關連來探究此「六者一組」的意義。
    本文認為《孟子》的心性論,是由作為「存在起點」的人心與「存在可能性」的人性講起,因此,實踐的工夫不得不轉由形氣做起。換言之,踐形、養氣等工夫,並不能由「心上下工夫」一語帶過,儒家談的成德之教必然連結著關於人的一切事物。人以仁義所展開的存在方式,這一整個過程,孟子名為「立命」,而「天之所以為天」的意義,則在「立命」之人不斷的開顯與體悟下,透過他的表現進而呈現在我們的世界之中。易言之,天的意義事實上的早已滲透在我們的生命歷程之中,它雖作為不可智測的存在,但卻會在我們選擇異於禽獸的存在可能時,透露出它的意義。
    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that “mind, nature, heaven, body, chi, and fate” are a group of equally important elements when discussing Mencius. In the past, scholars tended to focus on “mind, nature, and heaven” as the core of research and use the three to interpret the meanings of “body, chi, and fate.” But relations among the six elements, “mind, nature, and heaven” and “body, chi, and fate,” were ignored. Interpreting Mencius in this way not only confined the meanings of “body, chi, and fate” to be within the range of “mind, nature, and heaven,” but might also diminish the richness of Theory of Mind. Hence, this study tried to explore the relations among and the meanings of the six elements “mind, nature, heaven, body, chi, and fate.”
    The scope of this study was limited to contemporary interpretations of Mencius, especially the research about “mind, nature, heaven, body, chi, and fate” done by Fu-Kuan Hsu, Chun-Yi Tang, Tzung-San Mou, Rurbin Yang, and Pao-Hsin Yuan. Their interpretations were discussed and related opinions and questions toward their research were posed by the author. Finally, these scholars’ points of view were compared and contrasted with Mencius, and the relations among “mind, nature, heaven, body, chi, and fate” and the meanings of the six elements were put forth.
    It was found that Theory of Mind in Mencius starts from mind as “the origin of being” and nature as “the possibility of being.” Thus moral cultivation must start from body and chi. That is to say, moral efforts are not just about “mind.” Moral education in Confucianism is necessarily connected to everything about man. Existing with ren and yi is referred by Mencius as “establishing being.” And the meaning of heaven is presented in the world through behaviors of man who establishes his being. That is, the meaning of heaven is already in our lives. Heaven, as being that cannot be measured, would reveal its meaning when man chooses to be different from animals.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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