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    Title: 北宋元符上書始末探析
    Other Titles: Analysis of Northern Sung Yuanfu Shangshu incident
    Authors: 張耀中;Chang, Yao-chung
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士班
    林煌達
    Keywords: 徽宗;調和;上書;元符三年;政治衝突;Emperor Huizong;reconciliation;Shangshu;Yuanfu first year;Political conflict
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:46:20 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   元符三年(1100),哲宗短暫的親政七年(1093-1100)後隨即駕崩,年輕的徽宗即位,成為北宋第八任皇帝。徽宗於繼位初期,以該年發生日蝕為由,決定打開朝廷的言路,下詔求直言。皇帝希望能藉此瞭解眾人的想法,作為自己施政上的參考。許多人利用這個上書機會,向年輕的皇帝進言。這批人藉由給予剛即位不久的徽宗各方面的建議,期望能整頓朝廷與改善國家。但是到了崇寧元年(1102),徽宗卻下令中書省,將當時有參與上書的人進行登記與分類。這些人被分成正等與邪等,分別受到朝廷的獎賞與懲罰。

      本文主要探析元符上書事件的始末,試圖釐清前因後果,希望藉此瞭解徽宗主政初期政治取向的轉變。首先是論述元符三年(1100)徽宗在即位後,如何處理朝廷政事,以及介紹具有影響力的重要人物,瞭解這個時期的政治背景,藉此分析上書事件發生的原因。接著觀察從建中靖國元年(1101)到崇寧元年(1102)間政治的轉變,來探討元符上書人遭遇的變化,並分析正等上書人與邪等上書人人數、生平與賞罰等各方面資料。最後是關於邪等上書人的恩赦,並分成北宋晚期與南宋時期兩個部分,探討這些遭受懲處的邪等上書人,處境何時才開始好轉,以及什麼時候獲得朝廷全部的恩赦。

      藉著探討元符上書事件始末,分析元符上書人身分與待遇的變化,可做為觀察徽宗朝初期政治衝突的切入點。從徽宗對待上書人方式的改變,就能瞭解其政治態度的轉折。這些上書人從徽宗重視其意見,到遭受朝廷分類與懲處,顯示出皇帝從政治開明到嚴格管制的改變,但是這樣強硬的手段,不但無助於安定國家,反而在無形中加劇了各種問題,也間接使北宋在最後迎來悲慘的結局。
    Yuanfu third year (A.D. 1100), after Emperor Zhezong had been in power for brief seven years (A.D. 1093 - 1100) then passed away, the young Emperor Huizong had succeed to the Eighth Emperor of the Song dynasty. In the first year, Emperor Huizong had decided to open a channel for court to heard some genuine advice in the reason of happening an eclipse of sun. He was hoping to know people’s thinking for his references of administration. Many of them had been using this opportunity to provide advice for Emperor Huizong to rectify the court and the country. However, in Chongning first year (A.D. 1102), Emperor Huizong commanded Zhongshu Sheng to catalog and divide those people who attended Shangshu into “righteous” called “zhengdeng” and “evil” called “xiedeng” to reward or punish them.
    This thesis analyzed the whole incident of Yuanfu Shangshu. By clarifying the cause and effect to understand the transition of political intention in the early administration of Emperor Huizong. First, expound the reason of Yuanfu Shangshu when Emperor Huizong had succeed in Yuanfu third year (A.D. 1100), realizing how he process government affairs, introducing the people in power, and knowing the political background at that time. Secondly, observing the political transition between Jianzhongjingguo first year (A.D. 1101) and Chongning first year (A.D. 1102) to discuss what happened to the people who had shangshu, and to analyze the data of zhengdeng shangshu and xiedeng shangshu in numbers, lives, rewards, punishments, and etc. Finally, the pardon for the xiedeng shangshu. Elaborating on the xiedeng shangshu, knowing when they got full pardon between the late Northern Song and the Southern Song Dynasty.
    By discussing the cause and effect of Yuanfu Shangshu and analyzing the change of status and treatment, we could found a breakthrough point in the political conflict. Knowing the transition of attitude from valued their advice to be classified and punished by the court indicates the difference of the emperor between open to strict policy. Through this high pressure measure is not helping to stabilize the country, but aggravating kinds of problems insidiously. It also let Northern Song face the tragic end indirectly.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute & Department of History] Thesis

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