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    题名: 國際企業類型、人力資源策略與外派訓練策略配適之權變架構
    其它题名: A contingent framework of the fit among international business types, human resource strategies and expatriate training strategies
    作者: 張哲誠;Chang, Che-Cheng
    贡献者: 淡江大學管理科學學系博士班
    陳海鳴
    关键词: 國際企業類型;人力資源策略;外派訓練策略;權變理論;internationalization situation;human resource strategy;expatriate training strategy;contingency framework
    日期: 2016
    上传时间: 2017-08-24 23:39:44 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 許多企業基於持續性競爭優勢的考量,將市場佈局由國內市場拓展為全球市場,企業透過國際經營一方面可降低經營者所認知的營運風險與不確定性,另一方面亦能透過國際間經營獲得市場或利潤的拓展,提昇企業海外營運涉入程度,以因應全球競爭、國內市場飽和、新市場開拓及多角化環境的需求。因此,國際化儼然成為企業在世界各地維持競爭優勢方面最重要的經營策略。並且,在競爭日益激烈的時代,企業走向國際化將會影響其管理方向,經營策略,人力資源管理政策等,使其內部人力資源勢必隨之邁向國際化;為落實企業經營使命以及國際化目標,必須將內部人才派駐至海外子公司執行要務與生活,因此人力資源管理與外派人員被認為是影響國際企業營運的重要因素,而人力資源策略和國際企業類型之間的配適將左右著人力資源管理的效益。
    根據權變理論的觀點,本研究透過文獻收集與推導針對不同之國際企業類型建構其人力資源策略架構,以「全球整合壓力」與「回應當地壓力」二構面針對四種國際企業類型區分出相對應的人力資源策略:任務型人力資源策略、紮根型人力資源策略、出口型人力資源策略與嫁接型人力資源策略。隨後,再依照建構而來的人力資源策略類型,大量分析既有之外派人員相關訓練文獻,進一步推導出相對應之外派訓練策略:成長型外派訓練策略、深耕型外派訓練策略、拓展型外派訓練策略與啟發型外派訓練策略;各外派訓練策略除了研擬行前訓練外,更於外派人員執行海外任務過程中提供所謂的支援訓練。經由前述之理論推導結果,本文建構出國際企業類型、人力資源策略與外派訓練策略適配之權變架構。最後本研究自經濟部投資審議委員會2014年之「對外投資事業名錄」挑選4家具代表性之國際企業,以深度訪談方式瞭解各不同類型之國際企業其人力資源策略與外派訓練策略,歸納訪談結果後和理論推導之權變架構進行比對與討論,進而探討管理意涵和後續研究建議。
    Many enterprises extend their market setting from domestic markets to global markets based on the sustainable competitive advantage. Through international operations, firms can reduce operating risk and uncertainties, increase profits and expanded market, and also deepen their involvement in foreign markets to better react to global competitions, domestic market saturation, and the need for diversification. Thus, internationalization has become the most crucial business strategy adopted by firms around the world to maintain advantages over competitors in an intensified competitive business environment. In this increasingly competitive era, internationalization of a business requires internationalization of human resources as well because internationalization can affect the management orientations, operational strategies, and human resource management policies. To achieve corporate missions and strategic goals toward internationalization, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have to constantly send their internal employees to overseas subsidiaries to accomplish certain tasks. Human resource management and expriates have been regarded as the essential factor that affects the operation of international businesses. The effects of human resource management depend on the fit between the human resource strategies and international business types.
    Based on contingency view, this paper constructed a human resource framework for different international business types from the induction of literature review. Also this research derived four types of human resource strategies consisting of undertaking human resource strategy, live-staking human resource strategy, export human resource strategy and grafting human resource strategy to correspond 4 different international business types based on the dimension of global integration and local responsiveness. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the literature associated with expatriate training and derived four types of expatriate training strategies consisting of growing-up strategy、grounded strategy、broadened strategy and heuristic strategy to correspond different internationalization situation and human resource strategies. Each expatriate training strategy includes “primary training” and “supporting training” to enhance the expatriates’ competence abroad before and during periods of expatriation. A Contingent Framework of the fit among international business types, human resource strategies and expatriate training then established. Finally, we selected 4 presentative international companies from 2014 Outward Investment Directory of Taiwan as in-depth interviews targets to understand the human resource strategy and expatriate training strategy of each company of different international business types. The interview results compare to the induced Contingency Framework to discuss the managerial implication and provide the future research suggestion.
    显示于类别:[管理科學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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