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    題名: 考量多元動機與效用性質的決策模型及其相關實驗檢證
    其他題名: Explorations of utility in a multi-motivation decision model and the related experimental tests
    作者: 于席正;Yu, Hsi-Cheng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學產業經濟學系博士班
    江莉莉;林俊宏;Jiang, Lily;Lin, Chun-Hung
    關鍵詞: 快樂;動機;社會順從;利他;心理取向;道德;外部性;皮古稅;Easterlin 悖論;happiness;Motivation;social conformity;Altruism;psychological orientation;morality;externality;Pigouvian tax;Easterlin paradox
    日期: 2016
    上傳時間: 2017-08-24 23:34:46 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究承續古典的效用主義思想,建立一個結合心理機制與外部行為的決策模型,期對人類行為有更豐富的解釋,並凸顯自利以外的人性價值。參考模型推論衍生的重要意涵,公共政策制定者得以更充分掌握個體的決策思維,以更細膩的方法解決公眾利益的衝突,或誘導社會大眾跳脫自利的框架,讓社會福祉的提升水到渠成。
    全文分三部分,首先是多元動機決策模型的建立。考量始自刺激出現,終於現實行為決策間的心理歷程,以及認知系統的理性決策能力,建構情緒與認知兩系統共同運作的模型,探討心理動機對決策與體驗效用的影響。藉由心理動機與實質決策間的動態調整過程,呈現個體完整的生命歷程。利用數值模擬生命歷程的快樂演進趨勢,呈現倒 U 的型態;如若強化利他動機,將提高歷程中的快樂軌跡。隨著個人的所得增加,基於心理特徵的機會成本增加、社會標準提高與本能性動機下的定位點與時俱進等三項因素,可能肇致 Easterlin paradox 的發生。
    第二部分旨在驗證本研究的決策模型之多元動機存在假設。擬定共有資源分配議題,利用自行開發的「情境延伸法」進行行為實驗。透過逐步凸顯多元動機之方法,蒐集動機存在性與受重視程度、對應的最適決策以及預擬快樂程度等數據進行統計分析。主要結果顯示,社會性動機將使個體減少自身利得的取用。然而,相對於單純凸顯自利動機的情境,凸顯社會性動機後的快樂感受顯著減少。惟利他動機的喚起不但進一步減少共有資源的取用,且能夠補償社會性動機的快樂損失,使個體的整體快樂感受無異於純自利動機下的情境。
    第三部分試圖將道德內化於個體的決策模型中,以刻劃利他動機的形成與社會定位點的由來。運用融合道德的決策模型,探討負外部性議題,並驗證道德與傳統皮古稅在修正外部性的對應性。結果顯示在外部性情況下,道德同樣能藉由個體對社會情感的重視來達成社會最適狀態。另一方面,基於道德內化而形成的利他動機,更能有效約束負外部性的行動,尤其重要者,利他動機係屬心理酬賞而非懲罰。
    Based on the utilitarianism, this study develops a decision model, integrating a mental mechanism with decision-makings, to provide profound explanations for human behavior and to shed light on the value of human nature besides self-interest. This decision model could be employed to help understand people’s decision process. The policy implications lead a government to design a meticulous way to deal with the conflicts of private interests or to induce people to dismiss the self-interest frame so as to yield the improvement of social welfare.
    The thesis contains three parts. In the first part we set up a multi-motivation decision model in which the mental process of stimulus receiving, perception, and decision is embedded. A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between an affective system and a cognitive system. Using this model, we could investigate the impacts of motivations on a person’s decision. Applying this model to intertemporal choice, we can trace a person’s lifetime decisions and happiness. A numerical simulation shows that lifetime happiness has an inverted-U pattern. Moreover, in cases where altruistic motivation is evoked, a person can attain a high path of happiness evolution. In addition, through the process of income growth, the negative anchoring effect caused by the lifting of social standards, treadmill effects, and the rise in shadow prices of psychological characteristics, might give rise to the Easterlin paradox.
    The second part is aimed to test the assumptions of multiple motivations. We design a series of behavioral experiments, called extensional contextual experiments, to examine the determinants of money payoff by eliciting various motives one-by-one. We find that the motivations of self-interest, social conformity and we-world are actually the main driving forces in deciding the allocation between money payoff and donation. The motivation of social conformity pushes a person to reduce the desired payoff, which significantly decreases his/her anticipated degree of happiness. Once a person’s altruism is evoked, the desired payoff decreases further. Meanwhile happiness rises to the same level as anticipated with sole motive of self-interest.
    In the third part we intend to endogenize the formation of social anchor and the generation of altruistic motivation by incorporating morality in the multi-motivation decision framework. This model characterized by morality creation and function is used to analyze the potential correction effects of morality on externality. We show that equivalence exists between morality and the Pigouvian tax. We also point out a value of morality- that is, people with an altruistic motivation, experience enjoyment rather than pain, from self-fulfillment of morality.
    顯示於類別:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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