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    题名: 共同衝擊、相對所得指數與營養不良率
    其它题名: Common shock, catch-up index and malnutrition rate
    作者: 楊尊宇;Yang, Zun-Yu
    贡献者: 淡江大學產業經濟學系碩士班
    胡登淵
    关键词: 營養不良率;相對所得指數;政府效能;一般性相關效果平均估計法;Common Shock;Catch-up Index;Malnutrition Rate;Government Effectiveness;Common correlated effects mean group
    日期: 2016
    上传时间: 2017-08-24 23:34:37 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究探討共同衝擊下相對所得指數與營養不良率的影響,資料取自世界銀行WDI資料,分析世界81國1995年至2014年共二十年的追蹤資料。我們參考胡永泰 (2015) 所提出以美國的購買力平價指數換算的人均GDP作為考量的相對所得指數(Catch-Up Index, 即CUI)概念,然後比較各個不同相對所得水準國家之國民營養不良罹患率的變化。依照世界銀行WDI資料分類兩個不同所得群組國家,分別為中高所得以上國家與中低以下水準國家。主要運用考量橫斷面相依的一般性相關效果平均估計法 (Common correlated effects mean group) 並估計採用固定效果模型、隨機效果模型、一般動差法GMM模型作為對照。結果表示:檢定結果大多接受營養不良率存在橫斷面相依的假說;相對所得指數在2002至2014期間逐年攀升,也就代表世界各國的所得水準越來像美國所得水準;而在中高所得國家營養不良率明顯在世界平均之下,在2002年至2004年之間沒有太大的變化趨近於平緩,直到2005年開始營養不良罹患率有明顯的下降;然而,在中低所得國家中也有相同的趨勢,且發現中低收入國家的營養不良率仍是高於世界平均水準。
      世界各國欲改善營養不良罹患率,可以美國相對所得指數作為一個目標進行探討,文中也加入了政府效能與女性勞動參與率來支持整個迴歸模型,其能瞭解政府補助與施政效率是否能夠改善營養不良罹患率。結果表示提高所得水準確實有效降低營養不良發生率,而政府效能在高所得國家中也具有降低營養不良率的效果。
    This study investigates the relation between the catch-up index and malnutrition rates under the common shocks. The data are mainly drawn from WDI data collected by the World Bank. The data cover 81 countries from 1995 to 2014. We refer Woo, (2012) of the United States per capita GDP in terms of purchasing power parity index as Catch-Up Index concept is put forward. In this way, we compare the change in different national income levels relative to prevalence of malnutrition across countries. In accordance with the World Bank WDI data classification, countries are divided into low and high income countries. It mainly use the common correlated effects mean group estimation method, -fixed effects model, random effects model and GMM model.
    Our results show that malnutrition rates mostly accept the existence of cross-sectional dependence hypothesis. Most countries'' catch-up index increased year by year in the 2002-2014 period, implying that those countries are more like the U.S. in terms of income level. In high income countries, malnutrition rates are significantly below the world average, between 2002 to 2004. It has not changed much, close to flat, until 2005. However, in low-income countries have the same trend, and for low income countries, malnutrition rate is still higher than average of the world.
    To improve the malnutrition rate around the world, catch-up index can be a goal to discuss. The paper also consider the roles of government efficiency and female labor force participation rate, which allow us to find out whether the government subsidies and administrative efficiency can be improved malnutrition rate or not. The results are shown to improve the income level does effectively reduce the incidence of malnutrition, and government efficiency in high-income countries also have the effect of reducing the rate of malnutrition.
    显示于类别:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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