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    Title: Ecofeminism and literary resistance in a meat-centric world
    Other Titles: 生態女性主義與肉食世界中的文學抵制
    Authors: 黃素馨;Huang, Su-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    黃逸民
    Keywords: 生態女性主義;素食生態女性主義;資本主義;消失的指涉對象;專制偏見;集體冷漠;父權制;階級制;歧視;剝削;色情;賣淫;他者;社會正義;食肉文化;ecofeminism;vegetarian ecofeminism;Capitalism;absent referent;arbitrary prejudice;collective apathy;patriarchy;Hierarchy;discrimination;exploitation;pornography;Prostitution;others;inequality;social justice;carniculture
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-08-24 23:32:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「肉」在我們日常生活中扮演重要的角色,全球對肉類製品的需求產生不同形式的暴力、歧視與環境惡化問題。本論文探討李昂、露絲.尾關、厄普頓.辛克萊爾與瑪格莉特.愛特伍,如何在其作品《殺夫》、《肉年》、《叢林》與《末世男女》中闡釋肉品工業的剝削慣例與父權宰制,並揭露在肉食世界中,交織的壓迫體制與強化的地位階級。
    生態女性主義結合生態與女性主義,意旨在永續經營環境並達到萬物平等的目標。跟隨著卡蘿.亞當斯「消失的指涉」與格瑞塔.嘉德「素食生態女性主義」觀點,本論文說明肉食文化如何藉由語言來疏離、貶抑受壓迫的族群,加劇歧視並壓迫受害者。一直以來,語言是宰制階級掌控社會與權力的工具,用以影響社會對女性與「他者」的行為態度,確保女性與「他者」處於社會、經濟與政治上的弱勢。生態女性主義對語言的懷疑論,幫助語言使用者察覺存在於日常生活話語中的種族、性別與物種歧視,改變我們不斷無意識地遵循文化與政治上的偏見。
    本論文檢視語言在東西方化脈絡下的影響及肉食文化、父權統治與資本主義全球化如何助長暴力及支配人們的飲食習慣和言行思考。第一章介紹語言中的歧視如何助長父權意識與肉食文化,肉語/父權語言迫使人們支持壓制體系,漠視其他種族、階級、性別與物種被迫害的事實。第二章討論台語如何將其偏好的豬肉、豬內臟與其他身體部位概念併入貶抑的語言當中,使食肉變成一種習慣,各式的壓迫成為慣例。使用肉語/父權語言鞏固了台灣傳統社會的階級制度,造成社會的集體冷漠與對女性、兒童和動物的歧視。第三章關注女性身體如何被視為一個社會、政治與經濟的工具。第四章強調對女性與動物的暴力在許多文化中常被偽裝為藝術或「愛的行為」。肉食文化鼓勵我們將女性與動物的身體視為可交易的娛樂品,使我們失去檢視社會不公的能力。第五章探討速食與消費主義對在地及全球農業、問題肉品與環境的影響。此外,本章節也討論了屠宰場與肉品工人的剝削與虐待問題。藉由這四部作品的分析,作者期待對環境及肉品製造與消費相關的暴力提供一個合乎倫理的回應。
    Meat plays an important role in our daily lives. The global demand for meat products has resulted in various forms of violence, discrimination, and environmental degradation. This dissertation discusses how Ang Li, Ruth Ozeki, Upton Sinclair, and Margret Atwood shed light on the meat industry’s exploitative and patriarchal practices in their literary works, Shafu (The Butcher’s Wife), My Year of Meats, The Jungle, and Oryx and Crake and how these literary works reveal the intersectionality of oppression and reinforcement of status hierarchy in a meat-centric world.
    Ecofeminism combines feminism and ecology, with the aim of improving environmental sustainability and achieving equal rights for all. Following Carol J. Adams’ “absent referent” and Greta Gaard’s “vegetarian ecofeminism,” this dissertation argues that the alienation and degradation of oppressed groups through language in meat-centric world exacerbates discrimination and victimizes the oppressed. Language has been used as a tool of power and social control by the ruling class, with the effect of influencing society’s attitudes and behaviors towards women and “Others,” and ensuring that they remain in socially, economically, and politically inferior positions. Ecofeminist skepticism about language helps language-users identify the racism, sexism, and speciesism present in our everyday vocabulary, and change our unconscious adherence to cultural and political biases.
    This dissertation examines the effects of language on various cultures in both Eastern and Western contexts and how carniculture, patriarchal power and global capitalism encourage violence and influences how people eat, act, think, and speak. Chapter One presents how the discrimination in our language helps strengthen patriarchal ideology and meat-centric culture. Meat / patriarchy language coerces people into supporting the system of oppression and become indifferent to other race, class, gender, or species’ suffering. Chapter Two discusses the incorporation of pork, pig offal, and pig parts into derogatory Taiwanese language renders meat consumption a habit and all forms of oppression routine. The use of meat / patriarchal language helps to reinforce social hierarchies of traditional Taiwan and contributes to collective apathy and discrimination against women, children, and animals. Chapter Three focuses on how a female body is used as a social, political, or economic tool. Chapter Four highlights violence against women and animals is often shrouded in many cultures under the guise of art or “the loving act.” The meat-centric culture encourages us to view women and animals’ bodies as commodities that can be traded and bought for pleasure, and as a result, we lose our ability to see the inequality that permeates our society. Chapter Five explores the effects of fast food and consumerism on local and global agriculture, the prevalence of meat fraud, and the environment, and how the working class struggles within the context of slaughterhouses and meat production plants. Through the exploration of these four literary works, this dissertation expects to provide a broad ethical response to environmental and all forms of violence associated with meat production and consumption.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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