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    Title: Against the Western "Barbarian": Narrating Bodily Resistance in Early Nineteenth-Century China
    抵制西「夷」:十九世紀上半葉中國關於肢體抵抗的描述
    Authors: Huang, Ying-Ying
    Keywords: 身體;妖魔化;西方人;西方主義;抵抗;body;demonization;Westerner;Occidentalism;resistance
    Date: 2015-06-01
    Issue Date: 2017-01-11 16:53:45 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 淡江大學出版中心
    Abstract: 漢學家在研究中國的自我形象構建和中國對西方人的描寫時,大量借鑒了愛德華.薩義德東方主義的模型和米歇爾.福柯關於種族的討論,然而對中國身體形象的關注尚顯不足。本文為作一學術補充,著眼於十九世紀上半葉,中國與西方首次激烈的肢體衝突的開始階段,研究中國人以西方人身體為對立而構建的中國身體形象,例證活躍於西方霸權語篇中,以控制和征服為目的的意識形態,如何在受侵略的一方被用以抵抗控制和征服。本文將東方主義模型和現代種族理論用於分析中國十九世紀學術著作、政治文書、民間流傳的通俗文本等,論證中國人在抵抗侵略時,通過描繪西「夷」雖如妖魔卻並非不可戰勝的身體形象,突顯了自身優越性,從而將中國身體構建成雖遭侵害,仍不屈反抗的英雄形象。第一小節概述中國如何創造、繼承和加強西方畸形身體的刻板形象,用於自我保衛。第二小節借後殖民理論分析抵抗性的文字背後的心態和文學修辭原理。第三小節討論西方對中國身體的戕害所引起的書面回應,著重於自身受害和反抗的困難,而第四小節則研究文本如何塑造出不屈的,戰勝西方身體的自我形象。這類描寫表現出中國門戶被迫開放的過程中,人們由於認知結構受到挑戰而對其中國身份採取的積極保衛。四個小節都凸顯了西方中心的種族論和東方主義視野中的東方形象如何被逆轉。結論再次強調這一點,並對中國的西方主義和自我形象描畫在二十世紀的延續和演變略作思考。
    Sinologists have made extensive use of Said's model of Orientalism and Foucault's discussion of race to research China's self-image and representation of Westerners, but the Chinese body has not received enough attention. My paper adds to this scholarship by investigating the Chinese construction of an embodied self against the Western body in the first half of the nineteenth century, the opening phase of unprecedentedly intense physical confrontation with the West, and demonstrates how ideologies active in the hegemonic discourse to contain and dominate function as opposition to domination on the part of the invaded. Engaging Occidentalism and postcolonial theories of race, I examine texts from scholarly works and official letters to writings distributed among the common people, to argue that by mapping the "barbarians'" monstrous and yet not invincible physicality, the Chinese sought to construct their bodies as superior, victimized and yet regenerative, in resistance to invasion. My first section looks at the invention, inheritance, and reinforcement of stereotypes about Westerners' physical deformity, which were employed when demand for self-defense arose. Section two uses post-colonial theories to analyze the mentality and literary techniques in the rhetoric of resistance. Next, I examine textual reactions to Western devastation of the Chinese body, focusing on the victimized self and the difficulty of resistance, which are contrasted to in the following section, where I investigate texts portraying a regenerative self that conquers the Western body. Such representations register a proactive defense of Chinese identity when the people's epistemological frames were severely challenged during the painful "Open Door." All four sections underline the reversal of a Eurocentric discourse about race and an Orientalized East, the theme of which I revisit in the conclusion, with a reflection on the continuity and evolution of Chinese Occidentalism and self-image into the twentieth century.
    Relation: Tamkang Review=淡江評論 45(2), pp.89-110
    DOI: 10.6184/TKR201506-5
    Appears in Collections:[淡江評論] 第45卷第2期

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