|摘要: ||學習一種語言的語意系統非常重要。眾所皆知，掌握相容性的規則對外國學生造成很大的困難，詞彙語意學、語法相容性的錯誤在當中最具系統性。在這篇文章當中，我們將研究聚焦在語言學的結構、詞彙語意學及語法的相容性。文章同時也在俄國文學的基礎上、探討俄語的移動性動詞。我們由詞彙、語意學及文法的觀點進行分析，並採取由屬於莫斯科語意學派的語言學家（包括Igor Melchuk, A. Zholkovsky, Jurij Apresj an, E. Paducheva, N. Arutunova等），發展出來的一種新的綜合方法，接近字典說明的語意闡述為框架。這種方法將 使語言學家更能了解不同語言的結構、規則及發展。|
The study of the semantic system of language is extremely important. As it is well known that mastering the rules of co-occurrence causes great difficulties for foreign students and that the errors on the lexico-semantic and syntactical cooccurrence are among the most (stable) systematic. In this article we focused our research on linguistic structure, lexico-semantic and syntactical co-occurrence. This article was devoted to verbs of motion in the Russian language, based on the Russian literature, as well as the colloquial usage of the verbs of motion. We analyzed them from both the lexical, semantic and grammatical points of view within the frames of a new integrative approach to lexicographic description of semantics elaborated by linguists belonging to the Moscow semantic school (Igor Melchuk, A. Zholkovsky, Jurij Apresjan, E. Paducheva, N. Arutunova etc.). This method will enable the linguists to gain a better understanding of the structures, rules and development of different languages. The idea of an integrative description underlies the Explanatory Combinational dictionary of Modern Russian (ed. I.A. Mel'chuk and A.K. Zholkovsky, 1984) and ＂New explanatory dictionary of synonyms of the Russian Language (1st edition) (ed. Y. D. Apresjan, 1997). The purpose of this dictionary is to reflect on the possibility of lexico-semantic and syntactical relations of the given word with other words. A unit of descriptions in this dictionary is not just a word, but a word in one meaning-a lexeme, it is a separate lexeme, and it is provided with the integrative description (vocabulary entry). In this integrative description (vocabulary entry) we can find the fixation of the three main types of relationships between words: 1) semantic (paradigmatic) description, 2) syntactic (i.e., syntagmatic) description, 3) lexical description. We also analyzed the dependence of co-occurrence on secondary lexical meanings (based on the Russian verbs of motion). In this connection, we think that these studies are relevant, especially in the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language. The practical significance of this study of lexical-semantic groups of verbs (especially verbs of motion/movement) for foreigners is great. It helps them to better understand the rules of the Russian language, and, hence, to master it more easily and freely.