Research on ornithopters is receiving more attention because they exhibit good controllability,
maneuverability, and robustness in the natural environment. Here, we report on the design, fabrication,
and experimental validation of the mid-size butterfly ornithopter, which mimics the morphology of a
dead leaf butterfly. The wing flapping mechanism can support wings with a span of 565 mm and can
flap the wings in a 120-degree range and at a frequency of 5 Hz. A lift force measurement and a particle
image velocimetry experiment were performed to validate the performance of the ornithopter.
Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 19(1), pp.7-16