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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/108463

    Title: Investigating the Effectiveness of Redundant Text and Animation in Multimedia Learning Environments
    Authors: 朱孝龍
    Keywords: Redundant Text;Verbal Redundancy;Cognitive Load;Multimedia Learning
    Date: 2006-03
    Issue Date: 2016-11-25 02:12:52 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: University of Central Florida
    Abstract: In multimedia learning environments, research suggests that simultaneous presentation of
    redundant text (i.e. identical narration and on-screen text) may inhibit learning when presented
    with animation at the same time. However, related studies are limited to testing with cause-andeffects
    content information (e.g., Moreno & Mayer, 1999, 2002).
    This study examined the effects of redundant text on learners' memory achievement and
    problem solving ability. The study replicated and extended prior research by using descriptive,
    rather than cause-and-effect content information. The primary research questions were (a) does
    redundant text improve learning performance if learners are presented with instructional material
    that addresses subject matter other than cause-and-effect relationship? and (b) does sequential
    presentation of animation followed by redundant text help learning? To answer the research
    questions, five hypotheses were tested with a sample of 224 Taiwanese students enrolled in a
    college level Management Information System (MIS) courses at a management college in
    southern Taiwan.
    Statistically significant differences were found in memory achievement and problem
    solving test scores between simultaneous and sequential groups; while no statistically significant
    differences were found in memory achievement and problem solving test scores between verbal
    redundant and non-redundant groups. These results were supported by interviewees expressing
    difficulty in connecting animation and verbal explanation in the two sequential presentation
    groups. The interview responses also helped to explain why insignificant results were obtained when redundant and non-redundant verbal explanations with animation were presented
    In general, the results support previous research on the contiguity principle (Moreno &
    Mayer, 1999), suggesting that sequential presentations may lead to lower learning performance
    when animation and verbal explanation are closely related. The separation of the two types of
    information may increase cognitive load. In addition, the study found that impairment of
    redundant text (Kalyuga, Chandler, & Sweller, 2004; Moreno & Mayer, 2002) was also affected
    by various learning characteristics, such as the structure of the instructional content and learners
    previous learning experiences.
    Recommendations for future study include: (a) research on various situations such as
    characteristics of the content, characteristics oflearners, and difficulty of the instructional
    material that influences the effects of redundant text, and (b) research on prior learning
    experience that influences the effects of simultaneous redundant text presentations.
    Appears in Collections:[大眾傳播學系暨研究所] 專書

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