A vehicle-rail-bridge interaction (VRBI) model for analysing the 3D dynamic interaction between the moving trains and railway bridge was developed. By the dynamic condensation scheme, three types of vehicle-rail interaction (VRI) elements were derived, by which the vehicle and bridge responses, as well as the wheel / rail contact forces, can be computed. Track irregularity of random nature was taken into account. The results indicate that resonance can occur in both the lateral and torsional vibrations of the bridge, as well as in the vertical vibration. Under the crossing of two face-to-face moving trains, the vertical vibration of the bridge is greatly intensified, while the lateral and torsional responses may be increased or reduced, depending on how the two trains cross each other. Finally, two common indices are used to assess the possibility of derailment for trains passing over the bridge at different speeds.