This paper attempts to refine the Extended Parallel Process Model by adding the notion of hope to highlight the significant role of fear in fear appeals. Using System Dynamics modeling methods to reformulate the key constructs and integrate the ideas drawn from theories of multiple disciplines, the relationship between danger control and fear control
processes are modified. Accordingly, the Fear Management Model is devised to fix the flaws and resolve the major unanswered questions in fear appeal literatures. Moreover, the implications for helping resistant audiences to pursue adaptive behaviors are discussed. Fourteen propositions are proposed for guiding hypothesis development in future research.
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society