Many important energy systems are based on the complexity of material architecture, chemistry and interactions among constituents within. To understand and thus ultimately control the energy applications calls for in-situ/operando characterization tools. Recently, we have developed the in-situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopic systems for the studies of catalytic and electrochemical reactions, and reveal how to overcome the challenge that soft X-rays cannot easily peek into the high-pressure catalytic or liquid electrochemical reactions. The unique design of in-situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy instrumentation and fabrication principle and one example are presented.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 9560