Purposes: To investigate the sports injury suffered by Taekwondo athletes of the 2014 National Intercollegiate Athletic Games during competitions and training, hence by understanding the cause of injuries, we can provide injury prevention methods to provide the concept of self-protection for athletes and thus improving sporting performance. Methods: A survey was conducted by giving out 644 self-administered Sports Injury Questionnaires to athletes from 15th May 2014 until 21st May 2014 at Yunlin District Stadium. 400 questionnaires with 355 effective questionnaires were recovered (89% recovery rate). Results: 1. The self-recognition for cause of sports injury: Collision based injury was more common for males at 85.7% while overuse injuries were more common among females at 86.3%; 2. The sports injury prevention: For the self-competency of sports injury prevention, 46.8% had high prevention knowledge, while 16.3% had low prevention knowledge; 3. Injuries sustained during training and competitions: On the average, most injuries suffered were at lower limbs, and the majorities of injuries suffered by males were contusions and sprains for females; the most serious type of injury suffered during competitions are contusions for both males and females; 4. The variables that affect the cause of sports injury were competition category, involvement year in Taekwondo, warming up time, training time, education background; In contrast, the variables that had effects on the sports injury prevention were age, BMI, weight category, involvement year in Taekwondo, warming up time, training time; 5. Basic information, cause of injury, and injury prevention ability had relationships at certain parts; 6. Basic information and cause of injury can effectively predict the ability of injury prevention. Conclusion: Serious contusions to the lower limbs were the main cause of injury for Taekwondo athletes during training or competition. However, more than half of the athletes had good prevention abilities but lacked the motivation for self-protection.