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    题名: 焚化鍋爐灰摻配坡縷石與廢玻璃燒製高性能調濕陶瓷綠建材之研究
    其它题名: A study on the sintering of high performance humidity control ceramic of green building material by MSWI boiler ash, palygorskite and waste glass
    作者: 黃啟賓;Huang, Chi-Bin
    贡献者: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
    高思懷;Gau, Si-Huai
    关键词: 調濕材料;燒結;鍋爐灰;坡縷石;廢玻璃;humidity control materials;sintering;Boiler ash;Palygorskite;waste glass
    日期: 2015
    上传时间: 2016-01-22 15:07:19 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 垃圾焚化處理將產生相當量的灰渣,其中飛灰內含大量易溶出重金屬,使得飛灰中重金屬溶出量常超過法規限值而成為有害廢棄物,焚化飛灰又可分為反應灰與鍋爐灰,研究發現反應灰一般含有高鹼度及大量重金屬的性質,在燒結過程中因成份分解而產生大量氣體類似發泡特性,然而焚化鍋爐灰重金屬之溶出遠低於反應灰,卻具有類似之物化性質。坡縷石(palygorskite)本身具有大量的比表面積,具吸附重金屬效果;廢玻璃則是容易於燒結過程中產生液相,使產品機械強度大幅增加,因此本研究將利用原料特性來燒製多孔調濕陶瓷材料。目前市面上調濕材料的單價均非常高,研發國內自製的調濕陶瓷材料,除了降低售價,又能解決廢棄物處置的問題。
    本研究利用垃圾焚化鍋爐灰、廢玻璃以及坡縷石作為混合配比之原料,藉由不同的燒結溫度、升溫速率、燒結氣氛燒製成多孔調濕陶瓷材料,機械特性分析燒結體是否達CNS3299-4 陶瓷面磚試驗法之抗彎試驗規範,透過試驗方法日本JIS A 1470-1:2008建築材料之吸放濕性試驗法─第1部:濕度應答法找出具有調濕性較高之配比;輔以XRD、SEM等精密儀器進行微觀分析,探討燒結體之晶相物種、孔洞特性等變化。參考民國101年環保署公告之「垃圾焚化廠焚化底渣再利用管理方式」作為研究規範,針對燒結體進行毒性特性溶出程序試驗,探討重金屬溶出狀況,來確認燒結體之安全性。
    試驗結果得知鍋爐灰參配廢玻璃與坡縷石,在混合配比為鍋爐灰10%、廢玻璃70%及坡縷石20%(實驗編號:GAF-721),在空氣氣氛與氮氣氣氛於750℃燒結下,即可達到第二級調濕材料之標準(吸濕量50g/m2,放濕率70%),其值分別為吸濕量65.26 g/m2、放濕率75.32%與吸濕量59.59 g/m2、放濕率80.3%;二者抗灣強度皆超出陶瓷面磚試驗法之標準(6.12 MPa),其值分別為6.12 MPa與6.93MPa;而重金屬Pb、 Zn、Cu、Cr皆能有效的穩定在燒結體當中,其固相穩定率為73%、90%、99%、99%以上;且毒性溶出試驗(TCLP)檢測值均遠低於規範標準,因此可確定此產品可達無害化,可以進行再生利用。
    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) will produce fly ash which contains a large amount of heavy metals and the leaching concentration usually doesn’t meet the regulatory limits of EPA. Therefore, the fly ash is considered to be hazardous waste. Fly ash divided into reaction ash and boiler ash. Many studies have found that the reaction ash always contains large amount of alkalinity and heavy metals. However, sintering process will decompose the components and it will also generate lots of gas that like the foaming characteristics. Leaching concentrations of heavy metals of boiler ash are lower than reaction ash, and they have the similar chemical and physical characteristics. Palygorskite has a large amount of specific surface area, which has high efficiency to absorb heavy metals. Glass is easy to generate a liquid phase during the sintering process. This phenomenon could increase the mechanical strength of the sintered specimens. Therefore, this study would investigate the feasibility of sintering the mixtures of boiler ash, palygorskite and waste glass as a humidity-controlling ceramic. Nowadays, humidity-controlling ceramic is high value structure material. The humidity-controlling ceramic made by the mixture will offer a cheaper substitute and also solve the problem of MSWI fly ash.
    In this study, mixtures of boiler ash, palygorskite and waste glass were sintered to make as humidity-controlling ceramic at different sintering temperature, heating rate and sintering atmosphere. CNS3299-4 was used as the bending test. All the synthesized materials have to conform with JIS A 1470-1 of the humidity-controlling test:2008 Determination of water vapor adsorption/desorption properties for building materials Part 1: Response to humidity variation find the best. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to identify the crystal species and explore the pore feature. The product must be ensured to meet the No. 1010094463A which was announced by Taiwan EPA in 2012.
    The results of this experiment indicate that the mixture of waste glass (70%), palygorskite (20%) and boiler ash (GAF-721) sintering at 750 oC in air and nitrogen atmosphere, the absorption moisture content of the sintered specimens were 65.26 g/m2 and 59.59 g/m2 and the removal were 75.32 and 80.3%, which were meet with humidity-controlling materials standard level 2 (50g / m2 of moisture content, 70% of removal). The bending strengths were 6.12 and 6.93Mpa (standard: 6.12 MPa). The steady rate of Lead, Zinc, Copper and Chrome were 73%, 90%, 99% and 99%, respectively. Furthermore, all of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leaching concentrations of the heavy metals were meted with regulation limits of Taiwan EPA. Therefore, the products of the experiment have been reached non-hazardous and that can be recycling.
    显示于类别:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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