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    題名: 水庫水質營養狀態管理指標之研究 : 以南化水庫與鏡面水庫為例
    其他題名: Trophic status indicator for reservoir water quality management : Nan-Hua and Ching-Mien reservoirs in Taiwan
    作者: 林學文;Lin, Hsueh-Wen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系碩士班
    康世芳;Kang, Shyh-Fang
    關鍵詞: 營養狀態指標;優養化;卡爾森;水庫水質;Trophic state index;eutrophication;Carlson;water quality
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2016-01-22 15:07:09 (UTC+8)
    摘要: Carlson(1977)統計北美水庫水質總磷(TP)、透明度(SD)與葉綠素-a(Chl-a)相關性,提出卡爾森營養狀態指標(Carlson trophic status index, CTSI),本研究以南化水庫及鏡面水庫1993-2013年之水質監測資料,檢討CTSI應用於我國水庫水質管理之適宜性,研究目的: (1) 統計水庫水質參數與CTSI值相關性、(2)評估水庫水質與CTSI公式相關性、及(3)比較各水質管理指標判定優養化之比例。此外,營養狀態指標包含CTSI及OECD、美國EPA與Carlson提議之水質指標。
    研究結果顯示美國EPA、OECD與日本直接以 Chl-a、TP濃度判定水質營養狀態,CTSI則應用於美國有些州之湖泊水質總量管制計畫。以南化水庫水質為例之統計結果,顯示南化水庫TN/TP平均值為37.54大於15,磷為優養化之限制營養源。SD、TP與Chl-a之間相關性低,其相關係數(r)分別0.08與0.19,無法以SD與TP推估Chl-a,此與Carlson統計北美水庫水質具高相關性(其r值分別0.93與0.846)之結果相異,故CTSI公式不適用於我國水庫水質管理。此外,南化水庫水質SD與SS之相關性(r=-0.77)高於SD與Chl-a之相關性(r= 0.08),意味這SD主要受SS影響,致使CTSI值亦主要受TSI(SD)值影響。我國水庫集水區暴雨高SS,故SD不適用為我國水庫水質管理參數。
    CTSI判定南化水庫優養化比例為27%,以TP為管理指標時,OECD TP、OECD年平均TP、USEPA TP與Carlson TP判定優養化比例分別為13%、16%、41%與32%。以Chl-a為管理指標時,OECD Chl-a、OECD年平均Chl-a、USEPA Chl-a與Carlson Chl-a判定優養化比例分別為1% 、5%、9%與9%。結果顯示因USEPA TP判定優養化限值為20 ug/L(相當於我國甲類水體標準),判定優養化比例最高為41%。相對地,以Chl-a判定優養化比例最高為USEPA Chl-a之9%。鏡面水庫之結果與上述南化水庫之結果相似。Chl-a直接代表藻類數量,TP為藻類生長限制營養源,故建議我國水庫水質營養狀態管理指標可同時參採OECD平均TP與USEPA Chl-a或OECD年平均Chl-a。
    Carlson(1977) developed CTIS(Carlson trophic status index) using the correlation of total phosphorus (TP), transparency (SD) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) based on data of North America reservoir. In this study, the water quality data of Nan-Hua and Ching-Mien reservoirs monitored from 1993 to 2013 was collected by Taiwan EPA. The purposes of this research were: (1) to analyze the correlation between water quality parameters and CTSI, (2) to evaluate water quality parameters associated with the CTSI, (3) to compare the ratio of eutrophic status using trophic state indices. The trophic state indices (TSI) including CTSI, OECD comprehensive index (OECD) and US EPA are employed.
    The US EPA, OECD and Japan classified trophic status by Chl-a and TP concentration. CTSI was applied in Lake TMDL of the United States. The results based on the data of Nan-Hua reservoir indicate that, for example, the average of N/P ratio of Nan-Hua reservoir was 38 (more than 15). The limiting nutrient might be TP for Nan-Hua reservoir. The low correlation is present SD, TP and Chl-a. The correlation coefficient(r) was 0.08 and 0.19, respectively. The consequences are different from Carlson’s results that SD between TP and Chl-a had high correlation(r= 0.93 and r= 0.846, respectively). CTSI can not apply to the management of reservoir water quality in Taiwan. The correlation between SD and SS was better than that between SD and Chl-a which means SD is mainly affected by SS. Because reservoirs had high SS concentration in Taiwan, SD is not appropriate for water quality parameters.
    The ratio of eutrophic status was 27% by CTSI in Nan-Hua reservoir. The ratio of eutrophic status according to TP is 3% (OECD TP), 16% (OECD average TP), 41% (USEPA TP) and 32% (Carlson TP), respectively. The ratio of eutrophic status according to Chl-a were 1%(OECD Chl-a), 5%(OECD average Chl-a), 9%(USEPA Chl-a) and 9%(Carlson Chl-a), respectively. The highest ratio of eutrophic status according to TP was 41% by USEPA (TP), because the trophic status value for eutrophication was 20 μg /L. In contrast, the highest ratio of eutrophic status was 9% by USEPA (Chl-a). The results of Ching-Mien reservoir were similar to that result of Nan-Hua reservoir. Chl-a represented the density of algae and limiting nutrient was TP. Based on this research, we suggest that TP and/or Chl-a might be applied to classify the trophic status in Taiwan reservoir/lake.
    顯示於類別:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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