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    Title: 以原住民部落社會的災後重建歷程探討莫拉克風災後的公私協力永久屋重建政策 : 以杉林大愛園區為例
    Other Titles: The course study of indigenous tribal society post-disaster reconstruction to confer public-private cooperative permanent housing policy after typhoon Morakot disaster : a case study of Shanlin Da Ai community
    Authors: 胡漱寵;Hu, Shu-Chong
    Contributors: 淡江大學建築學系碩士班
    鄭晃二;Jeng, Hoang-Ell
    Keywords: 八八水災;莫拉克;災後重建;原住民部落;遷村;慈濟大愛村;永久屋;88 Flood;Typhoon Morakot;Da Ai Community;Permanent Housing;post-disaster reconstruction;village relocation;indigenous tribe
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 15:01:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   莫拉克風災後,中央政府採取與民間團體合作的模式興建「永久屋」,並做為主要的災民安置與重建策略,透過遷村、遷居的方式整合居民集中規劃,而重建以來發生諸多爭議與抗爭,部分重建基地的居民使用率也逐年遞減。為深入瞭解其重建策略與得失,本研究目的是探討莫拉克風災後公私協力的永久屋重建政策,及該政策對災區原住民的影響與衝擊。

      本研究採「內容分析法」分析報紙報導內容,呈現風災初期的時空背景下,中央政府危機處理的效能,與災後重建特別條例決策過程的脈絡。再以慈濟基金會主導重建的杉林大愛園區為例;區內原住民為主要對象,透過「次級資料分析法」及「訪談調查法」研究相關文獻與關係人,剖析重建過程的關鍵議題,歸納出重建政策的主要課題如下:

    (一) 趨於單一的政策思維,政府將興建永久屋視為全面的重建方案,而忽略不同災區、族群與環境狀況的居民無法一體適用。
    (二) 撤離居民為首的遷村策略,以「國土保育」為上位的重建政策,配套計畫皆以撤離居民為導向,不易與居民達到一致的遷村目標。
    (三) 未能參與的家園重建,杉林大愛園區的空間規劃因追求工期效率,未能落實社區參與並符合居民的重建需求,致使重建結果不盡理想。
    (四) 無從課責的協力夥伴,公私協力的重建模式中,援建的民間團體深具主導權,其責任卻沒有明確規範與限制,也缺少溝通平台與監督制度。
    (五) 重回客體的原住民部落社會,災後重建政策並未給予災區原住民充分的決策參與權,災區原住民須接受強制性的政策支配,中央政府與慈濟基金會倚重的遷村策略,則改變了部落中居民生活與居住空間的互動模式,也忽視了原住民部落社會與其傳統領域的共生關係。

      本研究將前述主要課題分析探討後,提出以下結論:

    (一) 永久屋重建政策是在災難引發的政治危機下,倉促的決策。
    (二) 杉林大愛園區以「永久住宅」的構造興建,卻採「短期安置」的策略規劃。
    (三) 慈濟基金會透過災後重建干預原住民文化,並藉此彰顯該會的影響力。
      After Morakot typhoon disaster, the central government adopted a method cooperate with NGOs to build “permanent housing” and it became the main strategy of relocate victims and reconstruct. Through village relocation, it concentrated inhabitant as in planning, however, there were many issues and protests, the usage of relocated community were slowly decreased. In order to understand the re-build strategy’s lost and gain in depth, the purpose of this research is to discuss public-private cooperative model of permanent housing reconstruction policy after Morakot typhoon disaster, and such policies’ influence and impact on indigenous peoples.

      This research used “content analysis” method to analyzed content of newspapers reports, to represent crisis management efficiency of central government at initial occurrence of the hazard and context of post-disaster policies decision on the “Special Act for Reconstruction for Post-Typhoon Morakot” . Moreover, the research used “Reconstruct Shanlin Da Ai community” directed by Tzu Chi Foundation as an example, with indigenous peoples from community as main subjects, through “Secondary data research” and “Interview survey” to investigate associated document and the people concerned, then analyzed key issues of process, finally conclude the followings:

    1. Almost unitary policy thinking, central government constructed permanent housing as overall reconstruct program, but neglected residents were from various areas, ethnic groups and environments condition, therefore the policy could not applicable as whole.
    2. Evacuated residents as priority of village relocation strategy, as national conservation as priority for reconstruction policy, implementation plans were evacuate-orientated, uncoordinated with inhabitant unanimous plan of relocating village.
    3. Inhabitants could not involve with reconstruction, due to the reconstruction efficiency of Da Ai Community, they could not fulfil community involvement and correspond with reconstruction needs, as result, the reconstruction was not ideal.
    4. Non-accountable cooperation partner, under that situation public-private cooperative reconstruction mode, the NGO held leading dominance, the responsibility were no explicit on regulation and limitation, also lack of communication platforms and guiding system.
    5. The action returned objectivity of indigenous tribal societies, post-disaster reconstruction policies did not give indigenous peoples in disaster-area adequate involvement in decision making, inhabitants had to accepted forceful policies predominant, the relocation strategy by central government and relied heavily by Tzu Chi Foundation, changed interaction method of indigenous peoples’ life and living spaces, ignored indigenous peoples tribe society and traditional indigenous territorial coexisting relationship.

      This research analyzed previous topics, then address the following conclusions:

    1. Permanent housing reconstruction policy was a haste decision which under a political crisis caused by the disaster.
    2. Shanlin Da Ai community was constructed as “permanent housing” but planned with “temporary settling” strategy.
    3. Tzu Chi Foundation intervened indigenous culture, and manifested the influential power of the foundation.
    Appears in Collections:[建築學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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