|摘要: || 本論文的思考主軸主要有二，一是鎖定唐代的弱勢階層，二為「科際整合」的研究。就第一點而言，因弱勢階層類型包含廣泛，因此本論文中階級的確立主要依《唐律疏議》中的族群劃分為主。在唐律中，老、小、三疾以及孕婦……等皆因其特殊身分而能受到刑罰的優免，前二者是考量其年齡的限制，後兩者則是因其體質的特殊。四者之中，「老人」群體尤為特別，他們雖因其年齡的限制而成為行為上的弱勢，然其高壽的特點往往又被認為是智者的象徵，因而成為歷代君王問政的對象，「天子行養老禮」甚至成為君王操作人民「移孝作忠」的政治手段，因此，本論文的論述族群便擇唐代的老人為研究對象。|
Two of the primary research areas in this dissertation are “The underprivileged level of Tang Dynasty” and the research of “Interdisciplinary”. The underprivileged level is defined according to the interpretation of “Tan Lu Shu Yi”. In Tan Lu Shu Yi, it clearly stated that the elder, children, disables and pregnant women are subjected to give privilege when facing penalties from the law.The elder and children are considered to be given privilege due to the factor of their age, while disables and pregnant women are given privilege because of their physical conditions. Among the four groups, the elder in particular, is treated special the most. Although they are classified as underprivileged level with the aging factor. However, often, longevity is considered as a symbol of the wise, thus emperors in different dynasties are usually enquiring political advices from the elder. Emperor gives privilege and respect to the elder had even become one of the methods to manipulate his people to shift their filial piety to loyalty. With the significantly speciality characteristic of the elder in Tang Dynasty, this paper is focus on the research of the elder in Tang Dynasty.
As to the research of interdisciplinary, it has not only been the focus of the academic in recent years but also a future trend of academic research. In this paper, the content is not just the integration of literature and history, but also the integration of sociology, cultural anthropology and other disciplines. Furthermore, it involves the history of the system, history of family life, social history, medical history. In other words, it is a cross-disciplinary research.
Chapter one described the research background, purpose, methods and procedures, as well as existing research results into a diagrammatic explanation. Chapter two introduced a variety of ceremonies, traditional Chinese respect for the elderly Etiquette. From chapter three, the focus is brought to the Tang Dynasty. In this chapter, it explained the elderly population of Tang Dynasty which including national demographic distribution of the elder people, the determination of the elder and variances which effects life expectancy in Tang Dynasty. Chapter four and chapter five depict what the daily life looks like of the elder in Tang Dynasty from the discussion in documents of poetry, medical books, epitaphs... etc. Such as the diet of the elder, home care, recreation, religious sustenance and how people feel when facing ageing. Chapter six is to discuss the social welfare system of Tang Dynasty from the official land of law, order, format, style, and other related instruments, such as the advantages of the liturgical aspect exemption, waiver on the precepts, and the establishment of Bei Tien Yang Bin Fang. After understand the privilege that Tang Dynasty given to the elder, chapter seven and eight are focus on the research of poetry works and in comparison of Baijuyi’s court verdict to see if these benefits to the elder in Tang Dynasty are implemented well. Chapter nine is the conclusion which summarized the result of the research and carried out issues and future prospects.