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    Title: 張照書法學研究
    Other Titles: A study on the calligraphy of Chang Chao
    Authors: 張智菁;Chang, Chih-Ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士在職專班
    崔成宗;Tsui, Cheng-Tsong
    Keywords: 張照;書法;館閣體;帖學派;碑學派;Chang Chao;calligraphy;Guanget;epigraphy;hardwood calligraphy
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:59:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 張照是清朝康雍乾盛世著名的藝術家,在書法、繪畫、詩歌、音樂、戲劇等諸多領域均有傑出的表現,尤其書法一項,在康、雍、乾三代均受到帝王的重視,成為帝王書法的代言人,其書法造詣幾為一時之冠。但清朝中葉以後,碑學派興起,張照慢慢被湮沒在歷史中,今人多不識張照,研究張照的學位論文也較為罕見,因此本研究主要探討張照在書法學上的成就,張照其他方面的才華及造詣於本研究中均暫不論述。
    張照自少年時期即展現出他在書法方面的天分,步入仕途後,張照即因書法得到康熙皇帝的欣賞,成為康熙皇帝身邊的近臣。本研究第二章即略述張照的生平及仕履,以及他在工作上的成就。
    本研究第三章探討張照的學書歷程及其書學理論。張照主張臨帖優於臨碑,是「以帖學書」的信奉者及執行者。此外,張照認為學書務必要先奠定基礎,而奠定基礎要從學習《千字文》開始。有了學書的法門之後,接下來要勤於學習,於書法之道才能有所成。張照認為不管是臨帖或自己創作,都須以神韻為先,此外,個人的修養與學識更是學書不可或缺的要素,如此才能在一點一滴的累積之中,形成頓悟的契機,使心悟於至道。
    本研究第四章探討張照的書法成就,以及三代帝王和其他書家的評價。除了乾隆皇帝給予其「羲之後一人,舍照誰能若」的極高評價,其他書法家多數對張照也讚譽有加。
    但清朝中葉以後,碑學派興起,張照因多為乾隆皇帝代筆的緣故,被歸入館閣體書家的行列,同時因為張照主張要以帖學書,因此也被尊崇碑派的書法家大加批評貶斥。本研究第五章即論述張照書法地位在歷史上不同時期的變化。
    本研究探討張照的書法理論及成就,除了藉由張照的經驗,提供我們學習書法的途徑,也希望能對館閣體書法有進一步了解。我們應該多認識張照等被歸類於館閣體的書法家,多見識他們的書法作品,給予其公正的評價,還其應有的歷史定位。
    Chang Chao was an artist with quite reputation in the Great Prosperity during the reigns of Emperor KangXi, YongZheng, and QianLong of Qing dynasty. He was remarkable in various fields such as calligraphy, painting, poetry, music, drama, etc. His distinguishing calligraphy was valued by the three emperors as the image of emperors’ calligraphy. However, as the rise of epigraphy in the middle period of Qing, Chang Chao had been forgotten and few people heard about him ever since. Whereas seldom diploma theses focus on Chang Chao, the present study discusses the achievement of Chang Chao in calligraphy regardless of his genius and attainment in other fields.
    Chang Chao had revealed his talent in calligraphy since his teens. As he started his official career, he was admired by Emperor KangXi for his calligraphy and became emperor’s courtier. Chapter two introduces Chang Chao’s life and career and his fulfilment of work.
    Chapter three discusses Chang Chao’s learning process and theory in calligraphy. He was a follower and practitioner in “practicing calligraphy after paper-based model work” and argued a paper-based master sheet was better than an epigraph-based when practicing. Furthermore, he believed laying foundation was the first step in practicing calligraphy by which the “Thousand Character Classic” was the best role model. Then one had to practice hard to success. The romantic charm was the most important characteristic in either imitating a model work or creating one’s own work. Additionally, one’s self cultivation and knowledge, both essential in practicing calligraphy, would be accumulated and integrated as one’s insight and subsequently the realization of philosophy of nature.
    Chapter four focused on Chang Chao’s achievement in calligraphy and appraisal received from the three emperors and other calligraphers. Except for Emperor QianLong’s words “No one could be comparable to Wang Xizhi except for Chang Chao”, most of calligraphers also admired Chang Chao quite much.
    As the rise of epigraphy in the middle period of Qing, Chang Chao was recognized as a Guangeti calligrapher due to his ghostwriting for Emperor QianLong. He was denounced by calligraphers worshipped epigraph-based practicing since his stand for practicing calligraphy after paper-based model work. Chapter five concentrated on the changing of Chang Chao’s historical position in different periods.
    The present study discussed the achievement and theory addressed by Chang Chao in calligraphy. His experience serves as a reference for us in practicing calligraphy and understanding the Guangeti calligraphy. It is suggested knowing more about other Guangeti calligraphers like Chang Chao, seeing their masterpieces, appreciating them fairly, and revising their historical position.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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