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    Title: 張君勱與梁漱溟儒家思想意義之比較研究
    Other Titles: A comparative study of Carsun Chang and Liang Shu-ming confucianism significance
    Authors: 洪婕寧;Hong, Chieh-Ning
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    高柏園;Kao, Po-yuan
    Keywords: 張君勱;梁漱溟;理性早啟;精神自由;當代新儒家;Carsun Chang;Liang Shu-ming;Reason early start;Spirit of Freedom;Contemporary Neo-Confucianism
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:59:57 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 梁漱溟先生與張君勱先生同為民國初年的學者、實踐者,兩人皆以儒家思想為根基,面對西方文化的衝擊,試圖開出屬於中國文化的一條路,被譽為當代新儒家開河者。梁氏與張氏做學問的目的,皆是為了實踐與力行,而兩人的實踐方式有所不同:梁氏著重在鄉村建設;張氏投身於政黨與立憲運動中。筆者會選擇梁氏與張氏做為研究對象的原因,是看到此同為當代新儒家外王型之二人,其生長背景與思考模式有著對比性的差異,導致其走入完全不同的結果。並希望能透過此文,讓更多學者能看見此二人之思想精彩之處,尤其是漂流海外的張氏,其儒學思想有資格再獲得更多的重視。
    本文的儒家思想意義有兩層面,一是學術層面,指孔子一派的儒家思想,二是文化精神層面,指作為中國文化精神支柱的儒家思想。對於學術的儒家思想比較,欲從梁氏、張氏解讀儒家學術的代表性著作,進入兩人思想。作為文化的儒家思想比較,試以其對文化定義為始端,進入社會、政治、宗教、思想等領域,做多面向的了解。
    梁氏與張氏對於文化、社會、政治制度等觀察大同小異,卻做出不同的結論,關鍵就在他們對於儒家思想中的「理性」發展,以及「精神自由」等看法不同:梁氏用人個體的生命成長而言,以身體發展完全,才能走到心的發展,來比附中國文化上「理智」發展不健全,便開始發展「理性」,導致科學、數學、工業技術等發展停滯。「理性早啟」限制了「理智」發展;「理智」停滯亦限制了「理性」的突破,例如凌遲處死等酷刑。張氏不把「理性(情理)發展」與「理智(事理)發展」視為格格不入的事,他強調的是「精神自由」,去除承襲至今的舊文化歷史限制,透過注入西方的新血「精神自由」,發展屬於中國人的新文化;這個新文化,就是指「新儒學的復興」──透過擴展宋明之義理、心性之學,找到屬於中國人的哲學,做為促進此世代中國各方面發展的哲學。
    Liang Shu-ming and Carsun Chang was the same as the early Republican scholars, practitioners. They begin with Confucianism as the foundation, facing the impact of Western culture, trying to open a part of Chinese culture in a way. They are known as the first contemporary Neo-Confucianism. Liang Shu-ming and Carsun Chang purpose of the study, all is in order to practice and exercise, and the two practices differ: Liang focused on rural construction; Chang engaged in political and constitutional movement. I would choose as the object of study Liang and Chang reason to see this same practice of contemporary Neo-Confucianism, their upbringing and thinking patterns have contrasting differences, resulting into a completely different outcome. I hope that through this article, so that more scholars can understand the wonderful place of Liang and Chang. Especially Chang drifting overseas, his Confucianism deserve to get more attention.
    Confucianism in which there are two levels. First is the academic level, refers to the Confucian school of Confucius. Second, the cultural spirit level, refers to as a spiritual pillar of Chinese Confucian culture. For comparison of academic Confucianism, I want to interpret the Confucian academic representative works from Liang, Zhang to enter the two ideas. For comparison Confucian culture, I try to learn from them as the beginning of the definition of culture, deep into their thoughts.
    Liang and Zhang to observe the cultural, social, and political systems are similar, but made different conclusions. The key difference, in their Confucianism for "rational" development, as well as "free spirit." Liang believes Chinese people''s "rational early start" restricted "rational" development; on the contrary, the "reason" stagnation also limits the breakthrough of "rational" . Zhang is not the "rational development" and "rational development" seen as something alien, he stressed that "the spirit of freedom". Remove the restrictions of the old culture and history, through the injection of new blood in the West, "the spirit of freedom", the development of a new culture belongs to the Chinese people. This new culture is the "new revival of Confucianism." Liang Shu-ming and Carsun Chang were the same as the early republican scholars and practitioners. Facing the impact of Western culture, Liang Shu-ming and Carsun Chang were based on Confucianism, and tried to open a way which belonged to Chinese culture. They were known as the first contemporary Neo-Confucianism. Liang and Chang’s purpose of study is practice and exercise. However, each of them practice their goal differently. Liang focused on rural construction; Chang engaged in political and constitutional movement. The reason I choose them to be my research objet is they are the first contemporary Neo-Confucianism and different from their background and thinking patterns, which led to different result. I hope that through the article, more scholars can understand the wonderful part of Liang and Chang’s thought. Especially Carsun Chang who lived overseas, has a chance to get more attention on his Confucianism.
    Confucianism parts two level in the article one is academic, which is about Confucius; the other is the cultural spirit, which is the pillar of the spirit of Chinese culture. Compare with the Confucianism, we would like to read the representative article of Confucianism to get into their thought from Liang Shu-ming and Carsun Chang. To compare with the Confucianism of culture, we try to understand more part of the meaning of culture in the beginning in order to go into the yield of society, policts, religion and thought.
    Liang and Chang’s perspective about the culture, society and politics are the same. However, they made different conclusion. The key on their opinion of Confucianism at "rational" development and "freedom spirit" is different. Liang use people’s development to be an example,if a person wanted to have full spiritual development,he or she must needs full physical development. However the rationality on Chinese culture haven’t had full development,they already started to develop rationality,this lead to the development of science, mathematic technic of industry stop. Liang believes Chinese people''s "rational early start" restricted "rational" development; on the contrary, the "reason" stagnation also limits the breakthrough of "rational", like cruel punishment in Chinese tradition. Chang don’t think the "rational development on emotion" and "rational development on things" seen as something different, he emphasized that "the spirit freedom" remove the restrictions of the old culture and history, through the injection of new blood in the West, "the spirit freedom". To development a new culture belongs to the Chinese people. This new culture is the "new revival of Confucianism."
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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